System Analysis

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For this assignment I have been asked to produce a lifecycle analysis for a fictional “Ruddles bus company”. Below is an index of the tasks I have completed and the page number they are on.

System development lifecycle

Lifecycle stages Page

Waterfall model Page 4

Prototyping model Page 5

Incremental model Page 6

Spiral model Page 7

Lifecycle comparison Page 7


Task 1 - Requirements analysis Page 8

Task - Initial design Page 16

Task - Detailed design Page 1

Task 4 - Computer language Page

Task 5 - Test procedures Page 4

Task 6 - Maintenance Page 4

Task 7 - Paradigm Page 5

Task 8 - Comparison Page 6

System Development Lifecycle - (SDLC).

As software became larger and more people were required to work on each project, it became obvious that some sort of order was needed. So the SDLC was developed. They provide guidance on the order in which a software development project should carry out major tasks.

There are several different lifecycle models, each with its good points and bad points. Every lifecycle have stages that must be completed before going on to the next stage. The primary functions of a life cycle are to

v Determine the order of the stages involved in software development and evolution.

v Establish the transition criteria for progressing from one stage to the next.

There are several stages to a lifecycle these usually consist of

v Requirements

v Analysis

v Design

v Detailed design

v Implementation

v Maintenance


In this stage there should be a description of the existing system including how much it costs to run. It should include a report that details each part of the old system that needs to be improved, with a brief outline of how it would work on a computer system. Also the cost of the new system and how long the project will take should be drawn up.


In this part a more detailed investigation is carried out. There are several methods that can be used to gather more information. These include

v Interviewing staff to find out how the current system works and any problems that they have with the existing system.

v Questionnaires are also a good way of getting information.

v Examination of office documents

v Observation

After all the data has been gathered the results of the analysis need to be documented using diagrams such as DFD’s, flowcharts etc.


The data gathered from the last stage is made into a detailed specification of requirements for the new system. This is then used as an outline using different solutions ranging from a cheap solution, which will offer the minimal of what the client needs to a high costing one. The different solutions will include details of

v User Interface requirements

v Program design language requirements

v Data storage requirements

v Database requirements

Detailed Design

At this stage the client will have chosen which solution they want. The new system will then be specified in detail. The specifications may include

v Program design

v User interface

v Hardware

v Software

v Implementation period


The system will be physically built and the software developed. Everything will be tested and manuals will be documented for the user. The client will test the new system usually by running it alongside the old system until it is fully tested. Although this is not always the case. Staff will also receive training.


As there is no sure way of finding any errors in a new system until it is up and running, the system will be monitored and any modifications needed will be implemented.

Waterfall model

The waterfall model uses a systematic sequential approach. Each stage starting at the top has to be completed, then verified or validated before the next stage can be started. The feed back loops allow modifications to be made if a problem is discovered. There are activities that must be performed at every stage; these are documentation, verification and management.


v Its easy to follow the stages through

v As each stage is documented there is less change of problems at a later stage.

v Good for large projects.


v projects rarely flow in a sequential process.

v Its difficult to define all the requirements at the beginning of a project.

v This model has problems adapting to change.

v A working version will not be seen until late in the project.

Prototyping model

There are two types of prototyping, Rapid and evolutionary.

With the rapid model the idea is to create a program as quickly as possible. It is used to give the developers an easy way of understanding the exact requirements as the client can see the software at an early stage. This program is known as the throwaway prototype, a second program is then written for the final design.

The Evolutionary model is almost the same except that the initial program written is evolved into the final product.


v Because the prototype has been validated through interaction with the client, the specifications should be correct.


v Its hard to manage the prototype process

Incremental model.

With the incremental model each step is called a build, with each step tested before being built upon by the next build as with the prototypes this means the client gets to see the software early on in the project


v Client gets to working system early

v Easy transition

v Client can stop the development at any time

Spiral model

The spiral model is a metamodel; this means it can incorporate any other model into it. The spiral focuses on parts of the software development that are more problematic. There are four stages that are continually passed through; each of the stages can be done using a different SDLC.

The four stages are,

1. Identification of objectives, alternatives and constraints.

. Evaluation of the alternatives and the risks.

. Develop and verify.

4. Planning the next stage.


v Minimal risk of failure

v Improved estimations

v Reduced overruns and cost to fix


v Better for large projects

v Intended for internal development

Comparison of the different lifecycle models.

All of the lifecycles basically work on the same principle. The only difference is that some are more suitable for developing large projects while others are better for the smaller ones.

Task one

For this assignment I have decided to use the waterfall model.

Requirements Analysis

The Ruddles Bus Company are at present using a manual system to answer customer enquiries concerning the fares, routes and timetables of their buses, and would like to update their present system to a computerised version. The client would like the system to be installed in their main depot in Fulham, East London with a connection to the system in Guildford, surrey. The senior manager has no knowledge of computerised systems and would need to be instructed on this.

Existing System

The present system is a manual one, it is cheap to run, but the disadvantages are numerous. Fares, timetables and Maps showing bus routes, are stored on paper in files and folders. The staff need to look through these every time an enquiry is made.

Diagram of existing system

New system

A computerised system would work well in this office. The fares and routes could be easily integrated into a database along with the timetables. This will make it easier and more efficient for the staff as the information that they need will be stored in one place. This will also cut down on the paper usage in the office with less risk of documents being lost or misplaced.


After the initial outlay for the hardware and software development with staff training there will be little need for further outlay.


For the analysis of the Ruddles Bus Company I have decided to do an observation report and interview the staff, along with looking at the office documentation, in the following pages I have documented my findings.

1. Staff organisation chart

. Observation report

. Example of staff questionnaire

4. Samples of office documents

Example of questionnaire form filled in by customer enquiries staff

Office Documentation Report.

Below are a few example documents copied from the customer enquiries department.


Cash single fares summary (including Night Bus fares)

Zones Adult Child†

Any journey including central London (Zone 1) £1.00‡ £0.40

Any journey in the rest of London £0.70 £0.40

Special fares apply for journeys outside the London area

‡ Some short journeys across the Zone 1- boundary on certain routes are charged at 70p.

† Child 5-15 years. Children aged 14 and 15 years need a Child Photocard.

Child fares are not available between 00 and 040.


Bus route.

Analysis Report.

After looking at the information gathered from the observation report, questionnaire answers and examination of the office documentation the following analysis has been made.

At the moment staff are using a manual system. Answering the phone to customers relating to bus routes, their fares and timetables. This involves looking through documents by hand. The problems pointed out by the staff are

1. There are many different routes and fare prices.

. Sometimes it takes a while to track down the information

. Documents are easily lost or misplaced.

4. On a busy day the office is often messy and disorganized due to the staff not having time to replace the documents.

Office procedure

1. Customer phones the customer enquiries department requiring information.

. Staff answer the phone and take note of the requested information.

. Staff then locates the required information.

4. The information is then relayed back to the customer.

It is a small office environment with six employees, one manager, one secretary and 4 staff. It is recommended that at least five more power sockets be installed in the office and that the furniture be rearranged to accommodate a computerized system.

All of the office documents can be easily adapted for a database (recommended). The user interface should be user friendly as not all the staff are computer literate. Training will be needed for these staff.

Required system.

The new system will need to incorporate the following

v Be simple to use

v Locate the fare between two stages

v Provide a route number and final destination

v To provide a page of timetable with start and stopping points

v To be installed in the main depot in Fulham

v With a connection to the depot in Guilford



After analysis the following solutions have been arrived at for the Ruddles Bus Company.

Solution 1.

Hardware AMD based Computers


18 MB Memory

Onboard sound & video

Peripherals 17 colour monitors

1 inkjet printer

56k Modem

User interface Windows 8

Database Microsoft Access

Data backup Tape Drive

Costs £0,000 + VAT.


This is the cheapest solution. Staff will need to share the computers. It offers the bare minimum of what is required. The connection to the system in Guilford will be obtained by modem connection.


Hardware 6 Pentium based computers


18MB Memory


Peripherals 17 SVGA Monitors

Two inkjet printers

ISDN Adapter

Network Hub


User interface Windows NT

Database Microsoft Access

Data backup Tape Drive

Cost £0.000 + VAT


The staff will each have a computer, with one of them as the main server from which the printers will run. The ISDN Adapter will enable a quicker connection rate to the system in Guildford, although an ISDN line will need to be installed on both sites. This system offers plenty of scope for future upgrades


Hardware 1 Pentium 4 Based Server


51MB Memory

6 Pentium 4 based Computers


56MB Memory

Peripherals 18 LCD Monitors

1 LaserJet Printer

Network Hub & Cards

ISDN Adapter

User interface Windows XP Professional

Database Microsoft Office XP

Data backup RAID

Security Norton Internet Security 00

Costs £47.000 + VAT


As above but with the added features,

This package offers everything you need and lots more. As it is has the most up to date components it will not need to be upgraded for a long time. It will be fast and with Norton Internet Security 00 offering online protection. Microsoft Office XP has all the software needed to run an office. The monitors will be flat so will take only a small amount of desk space and because they are LCD monitors they will not cause eyestrain to the users.

Dataflow diagram of the Ruddles bus company proposed system


Detailed design

The Ruddles Bus Company has decided to go with option .


Server Pentium 4 based tower unit


51 MB Memory

Workstations Pentium 4 based desktops


56 MB Memory

Peripherals 6 18” LCD Monitors

1 LaserJet printer

1 scanner

Network hub & cards

ISDN adapter

Back up Raid


User interface Microsoft Windows XP for Professionals

Database Microsoft Office XP

Security Nortons Internet security 00




Double click the icon on the desktop. This will start up MS Access with the form.

1. Enter the town from where the customer would like to start their journey.

. Enter the destination the customer wishes to reach.

. Select the time the customer wishes to travel at, from the drop down menu.

4. Shows the estimated time of arrival at the destination point.

5. Shows the bus route number.

6. Shows which days that particular bus operates.

7. Displays the different fare price


Computer language

Visual Basic could be used to implement the software used in the new system. The forms and databases could be customized to the Ruddles Bus Company’s requirements.

Task 5

Before implementation is possible the hardware for the new system must be tested to ensure that everything works as expected, and to make sure the software applications meet the requirements of the customer.

Test procedures

1. Test Hardware � Ensure that all the hardware runs without problems.

. Test Software � Ensure that each software unit and database matches the requirements document.

. Integrate the hardware and the software and ensure that the new software operates within its new environment.

4. Develop software manuals

5. Have the clients test the new system to ensure that the system fits their needs.

Task 6

This is the Maintenance plan drawn up for the Ruddles Bus Company.

1. Ensure that the system is working

. Ensure the network is working

. Ensure all processes and manuals are documented in the operating procedures.

4. Perform backups

5. Perform physical security functions

6. Ensure there is a contingency plan for disaster recovery

7. Ensure the Ruddles Bus Company staff are trained for the new system

8. Ensure that the service level objectives are kept current and monitored

. Monitor the performance statistics. Report the results and escalate problems when they occur.

10. Periodic system reports � Reviews will be held fortnightly for the first two months, than at six-month intervals for the next year, followed by once a year.

Task 7


The Ruddles Bus Company new system could also be developed using a different lifecycle model. For example if the Prototype model was used the following would be done.

1. Requirements gathering and analysis are done first.

. A quick design is made using the requirements gathered as a template.

. A prototype is then built from the quick design.

4. The customer evaluates the prototype pointing out any changes they would like made.

5. The design is then refined.

6. The customer evaluates the prototype again until the specifications are right.

7. Once the customer is satisfied, it is then fully developed.

The advantages of using the prototype model is that the customer gets to see the working model throughout its design meaning that the finished product should be exactly to the customers requirements. Also because it is constantly being refined there should be fewer problems with the final system and software applications.




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Computing rd Edition 101 88815

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