business and stress

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In todays human-capital workplace, stress can be a companys greatest asset or worst liability. The right amount of stress can drive staff to achieve high levels, on the under hand, excessive stress can hurt morale, slow productivity, and lead to a variety of maladies. Such has chronic absenteeism or workplace violence.

It has been argued by some researchers that stress is not a bad thing, but a necessary thing, Like a stringed instrument, people need a certain amount of strenousity in order to perform. Minimal stress and the instrument will not sound right. Excessive stress and the string will break. Stress is needed to drive company production, however stress can easily be escalated, and if left unchecked, the effect can be one, which is negative to a company.

“Stress costs industrialised economies around 10 percent of GNP, through sickness absence, ill health and labour turnover.”

There are various aspects in the workplace that could be said have a direct effect on an individuals stress levels. Kornhauser (165) maintained that poor mental health was directly related to unpleasant working conditions, the necessity to work fast and to expend a lot of physical effort, and to excessive and inconvenient hours.” A study carried out in the USA by Hay and Oken (17), found that nurses working in intensive care were susceptible to stress due to the type of lighting they were working with. The combination of an ‘oppressive visual environment’ and the routinal nature of the job cause feelings of anxiety that can lead to ‘claustrophobia’ and ‘dehumanisation’.

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Additionally “the physical design of the workplace can be another potential source of stress. If an office is poorly designed, with personnel who require frequent contact spread throughout a building, poor communication networks can develop, resulting in the role of ambiguity and poor relationships.”



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Distribution Channels and Pricing Strategies

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Distribution Channels and Pricing Strategies

The first step in selecting a distribution channel determines which type of channel will best meet both the producer’s marketing objective and the distribution needs of customers. Fannie Mae does not deal directly with the end user of the Employer Assisted Housing (EAH) program. Rather it is the corporation that has direct contact with Fannie Mae and will ultimately offer the benefit to its employees. In this capacity the corporation acts as a marketing intermediary. A market intermediary is a business firm that operates between producers and consumers or business users.

A firm’s distribution channels play a key role in it’s marketing strategy, because they provide the means by which it moves the goods and services it produces to ultimate users. Channels perform four important functions first; they facilitate the exchange process by cutting the number of marketplace contacts necessary to make a sale. The second important function, is the distributors adjustment for discrepancies in the market’s assortment of goods and services. The third function of distribution channels involves standardizing exchange transactions by setting expectations for products and the transfer process itself. The final distribution channel facilitates searches by both buyers and sellers.

At Fannie Mae, the home is their business. As the nations largest provider of home mortgage funds, they have created the Fannie Mae Employer Assisted Housing benefit program to assist employees in achieving their dream of homeownership. The employer offers the housing benefit, often the form of a forgivable, deferred, or repayable second loan, a grant, a match savings plan, or home buying education that helps the employee achieve homeownership. The employee, who is the potential home buyer, participates by applying for the benefit, meeting the criteria set by the employer to receive the benefit, and fulfilling the necessary qualifications to become a home buyer. The lender provides the first mortgage underwriting and origination, and manages the relationship with the employee. Fannie Mae works with the employer, helping them create an EAH plan and identify lenders and other partners.

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An employer may find it hard to find and retain workers at all levels of responsibility. Perhaps they face a shortage of employees with particular expertise. Or, if the employer is located in a high-cost area, they are finding employees are paying high rents to live nearby, or are being forced to live in remote, more affordable locations and face long commutes to work. These situations have a detrimental effect on employee motivation and productivity, which may play a role in turnover rates, thereby increasing recruitment and training costs. Each turnover incident can cost the employer between $10,000 and $0,000 which includes separation costs, replacement costs and training costs. Companies that have strong employee retention save money.

The cost of providing and administrating the EAH plans, from the least to the most expensive version, are minimized or off set by the savings accrued from reductions in turnover, recruitment/relocation and training budgets, and from higher productivity and moral. For example a reduction in the turnover rate by even one percentage point for a typical company with five thousand employees can save the cost of hiring and training fifty new employees. Fannie Mae has also developed a software program to help employers calculate the potential savings their companies could realize from instituting an EAH program.

The purpose of a distribution channel is organization of a system of marketing institutions and their interrelations that promote the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or business user. The choice of distribution should support the firms overall marketing strategy.



References

Perrault, Jr.Ph.D, William, and McCarthy, Ph.D. E. Jerome (1). Basic Marketing

A Global-Managerial Approach. New York Irwin McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Fannie Mae (001). Washington DC.

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Retail Management Questions to ask Manager

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Organization and Management

Culture

• What are the core values of your company?

Planning

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• How do you forecast what will and won’t sell?

• What are some of the company’s goals and objectives?

• What are the company’s policies? (how are they enforced?)

Organizing

• What are the lines of authority and responsibility of the company? (strategic, merchandise, store, administrative management?)

• Do you have job descriptions?

Motivating

• Do you have any kind of incentives for motivating employees?

• What is done to boost the morale of employees?

Staffing

• What are some of the job requirements for a position at the store?

• What type of training is implemented for new employees?

• How much empowerment is givem to employees?

Controlling

• What kind of system is used to control inventory?

• What kind of quality check is done to merchandise before being sold?

• What is the turnover rate of inventory?

• How much back up stock do you hold?

Marketing

Product

• How is the assortment and variety of merchandise determined?

• How important is branding to the company?

• What has to be done to acquire a brand?

Price

• What kind of pricing strategies are used?

• What are factors that effect the pricing of products?

• What price adjustments if any are made to the initial retail price?

Promotion

• What forms of advertising are used?

Place

• How was the location for the store decided?

• What issues were considered in determining the location?

Target Market

• Who is the target market?

• How does your retailer select the target market?

• How is the store developing a competitive advantage over other competitors to reach this specific market?

Product positioning

• How do you decide what goes on the end of the isle?

Customer Relationship Management

Customer database

• What information do you keep on individual customers?

• How do you use your database?

Customer retention

• Why will customers come back to your store?

• Do you have services that competitors do not have?

• Do you have a loyalty program for repeat shoppers?

• How do you handle people when they are upset?

Cross-selling (salesman outside his department selling something else)

• Are employees encouraged to do some cross-selling?

• Are employees paid on commission?

Operations

Processes (supply chain, physical flow of merchandise,

• How long is merchandise in the store before it is on the floor?

• Is seasonal merchandise that is not sold held over for the next year?

• Do you have an option on who supplies?

Inventory (database management, storage, ordering)

• How often do you check your inventory?

• What method is used for counting?

• Where do you store inventory?

• How do you decide how much to order?

• What do you do with inventory that is left over?

Quality (Quality control processes)

• Who decides the quality that is acceptable for the store?

• What can a clerk do if they notice an item is not up to the quality standards of the store?

Finance and Accounting

• Annual report figures Balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows, statement of owner’s equity)

• Is the company publicly traded?

• How much of the company is financed through loans?

• Who is held Accountable for the revenues and the expenses you directly control?

• Who sets your annual performance objectives?

• How much business is needed each week to break even



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American Dream

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Ocotober 16, 00

Essay Outline English

Is there such a thing as the Perfect Family? Throughout America many people have tried to attain the American Dream. What is the American Dream though? All Americans envy the family which is portrayed with the succesful father is outside barbecuing on a Sunday afternoon for his family, while his wife is in the kitchen baking dessert, and his children with the dog in the backyard without a care in the world. All this would be great except for the fact that in all reality is the American Dream actually obatainable?



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In my first paragraph I will explain about the American Dream and Mention briefly about the two familes in Raisin in the Sun and Death of A Salesmen.



In my second paragraph I will discuss the simalrities that each family had in both plays and discuss how they both lived the same and basically had the same mind frame on being that they both wanted to be rich quick and that they felt the American dream was so easy to acheive you just had to find it.

Third Paragraph I will contrast both famlies and explain why they were different in some cases, because of their own social status such as living in the South compared to the North and being African American then from being white and working class.



In My fourth paragraph I will talk about why both families failed in acheiving the American Dream and discuss if the American Dream is easy to come by or does it take time and needs to be set up from generation to generation.



Conclude everything, repeat my thesis statement and view my opioion on the American Dream and How I feel it can be reached. Discuss and sum everything up I have said in my essay and back up any last questions the reader may have.



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consumer behaviour

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1. Introduction

Consumers make many buying decisions every day. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in depth to answer questions about what, where, when, why, how, and how much consumers buy. Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they buy, where and how much. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behaviour is not so easy; the answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s head.

The central question for marketers is How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour (Figure 1). It shows that marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer’s “black box” and produce certain responses. Marketing stimuli consist of four Ps product, price, place and promotion. Other stimuli include major forces and events in the buyer’s environment economic, technological, political and cultural. All these inputs enter the buyer’s black box, where they are turned into a set of observable buyer responses product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing, and purchase amount.

The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s black box, which has two parts. First, the buyer’s characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer’s decision process itself affects the buyer’s behaviour. We look at buyer characteristics as they affect buying behaviour and then at the buyer decision process. (Kotler & Armstrong (000), Marketing � An Introduction, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc, USA)

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Figure 1

. Characteristics Affecting Consumers Behaviour



The key factors affecting consumer behaviour are culture, social, personal and psychological. The sub-factors are defined under each of the following factors

.1. Cultural Factors

These may influence marketing strategy planning in terms of implementing your product on an international scale and having to localise the product and its benefits to meet with cultural or social standards. It exerts the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behaviour. The marketer needs to understand the role played by the following buyer’s;



· Culture � It is the set of basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviours learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behaviour may vary greatly from country to country. Failure to adjust to these differences can result in ineffective marketing or embarrassing mistakes. Marketers are always trying to spot cultural shifts in order to discover new products that might be wanted. The shift toward informality has resulted in more demand for casual clothing and simpler home furnishings. And the increased desire for leisure time has resulted in more demand for convenience products and services.

· Subculture � Each culture contains smaller subcultures, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups and geographic regions. Many subcultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design products and marketing programs tailored to their needs.

· Social classes � They are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests and behaviours. Social class is not determined by income but is measure as a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth and other variables. In some social systems, members of different classes are reared for certain roles and cannot change their social position. Marketers are interested in social class because people within a given social class tend to exhibit similar buying behaviour. Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as clothing, home furnishings, leisure activity and automobiles.

.. Social Factors

These may influence marketing strategy planning in terms of identifying which groups in society influence the target market the most thus allowing for promotional activities to be directed towards the ‘influencers’. A consumer’s behaviour is influenced by the following;



· Groups � When groups have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are membership groups. In contrast, reference groups serve as direct or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person’s attitudes or behaviour. People often are influenced by reference groups to which they do not belong. Marketers try to identify the reference groups of their target markets. Reference groups expose a person to new behaviours and lifestyles, influence the person’s attitudes and self-concept and create pressures to conform that may affect the person’s product and brand choices. The importance of group influence varies across products and brands. It tends to be strongest when the product is visible to others whom the buyer respects. Manufacturers of products and brands subjected to strong group influence must figure out how to reach opinion leaders. Many marketers try to identify opinion leaders for their products and direct marketing efforts towards them.

· Family � Family members can strongly influence buyer behaviour. The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society. Marketers are interested in the roles and influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products and services. Couples’ involvement varies widely by product category and by stage in the buying process. Buying roles change with evolving consumer lifestyles.

· Role and Status � A person belongs to many groups � family; clubs; organizations. The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status. A role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them. Each role carries a status reflecting the general esteem given to it by society. People often choose products that reflect their roles and status in society.

.. Personal Factors

The planning of marketing strategies must incorporate personal factors as they influence greatly the decision making process that the consumers use i.e. a person’s economic situation will greatly affect product choice or looking at the family lifecycle, a consumer may be young and still be strongly influenced by family members and the socialisation process they are adopting. A buyer’s decisions are influenced by personal characteristics such as;

· Age and Life-cycle stage

People change the goods and services they buy over their life-times. Buying is also shaped by the stage of the family life cycle, the stages through which families might pass as they mature over time. Marketers often define their target markets in terms of life-cycle stage and develop appropriate products and marketing plans for each stage. Traditional family life-cycle stages include young singles and married couples with children. Marketers are increasingly catering to a growing number of alternative, non-traditional stages such as unmarried couples, couples marrying later in life, childless couples, single parents, extended parents, and others.

· Occupation

A person’s occupation affects the goods and services bought. Blue-collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, whereas white-collar workers buy more business suits. Marketers try to identify the occupational groups that have an above-average interest in their products and services. A company can even specialize in making products needed by a given occupational group. Thus, computer software companies will design different products for brand managers, accountants, engineers, lawyers and doctors.

· Economic Situation

A person’s economic situation will affect product choice. Marketers of income-sensitive goods watch trends in personal income, savings and interest rates. If economic indicators point to a recession, marketers can take steps to redesign, reposition and re-price their products accordingly.

· Lifestyle

A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities (work, hobbies, shipping, sport, social events), interests (food, fashion, family, recreation) and opinions (about themselves, social issues, business, products). It captures something more than the person’s social class or personality; it profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world.

· Personality and Self-Concept

Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting response to one own environment. Personality usually describes in terms of traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability and aggressiveness. Personality can be useful in analysing consumer behaviour for certain product or brand choices. Many marketers use a concept related to personality-a person’s self-concept. The self-concept is that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, “we are what we have.” Sequentially to understand consumer behaviour, the marketer must first understand the relationship between consumer self-concept and possessions.

.4. Psychological Factors

A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors which are

· Motivation

A person has many needs at any given time. Some are biological, arising from states of tension such as hunger, thirst, discomfort. Others needs are psychogenic; rising from the need for recognition, esteem or belonging. A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to sufficient level of intensity. A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act.

Freud’s theory It assumed that the psychological forces shaping peoples behaviour are largely unconscious and that a person cannot fully understand his/her motivations. A technique called laddering can be use to trace a persons motivations from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones. Then the marketer can decide at what level to develop the message and appeal.

Maslow’s theory It sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times. The theory is based on that

- there is a hierarchy of needs

- some needs are more basic than others

- the more basic needs must be satisfied first

- as level of needs is satisfied, a person moves on to the next level

Maslow hierarchy of needs are shown as below



Physiological needs are concerned with self preservation and these are the basic needs of life involving those elements required to sustain and advance the human race. Safety needs relate to protection against danger and deprivation. Once the more basic needs have been satisfied behaviour is influenced by the need for belonging, association and acceptance by others. The final need is what Maslow termed ‘self actualisation’ which means self-fulfilment in terms of becoming all that one is capable of being and one has reached the pinnacle of personal potential.

· Perception

Perception is the process by which physical sensations such as sights, sounds, touch, tastes, and smells are selected, organised, and interpreted. The eventual interpretation of a stimulus allows it to be assigned meaning. A perceptual map is a widely used marketing tool that evaluates the relative standing of competing brands along relevant dimensions. People are exposed to a great amount of stimuli every day and can form different perceptions of the same stimulus because of three perception processes selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention.

· Attitudes and Beliefs

An attitude is a predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively. The attempts to change consumers’ attitudes and behaviours in ways that are beneficial to the society as a whole are referred to social marketing. Attitudes are made up of three components beliefs, affect, and behavioural intentions. Depending on the consumer’s level of involvement and the circumstances, though, attitudes can result from other hierarchies of effects as well. (Michael R. Solomon (00), Consumer Behavior � Buying, Having, and Being, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall International Inc, USA)

· Learning

Learning is the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behaviour. Although some learning is intentional, much learning is incidental. Basic elements that contribute to an understanding of learning are motivation, cues, response, and reinforcement. There are two schools of thought as to hoe individuals learn � behavioural theories and cognitive theories. Both contribute to an understanding of consumer behaviour. Behaviour theorists view learning as observable responses to stimuli, whereas cognitive theorist believe that learning is a function of mental processes. Three major behavioural learning theories are classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, and observational learning. (Leon G. Schiffman / Leslie Lazar Kanuk (000), Consumer Behavior, 7th Edition, Prentice-Hall, USA)

. Marketing Strategy Planning

The process of developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the organisation’s goals and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities. It involves defining a clear company mission, setting supporting objectives, designing a sound business portfolio, and coordinating functional strategies.

.1 Marketing Mix

It is the set of controllable tactical marketing tools � Product, Price, Place, and Promotion � that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market.

For example, when Sony introduces a new product, they do not believe in product research before the launch. They believe that if the product is going to be a success, the customers will decide. When the MD was introduced, the target market was the ‘MTV Generation’. Due to the fact that the first and second launches was extremely unsuccessful, Sony, admitted that for the third launch, had done its research and the target market was people aged 18 to 4, who buy twelve or more CDs a year whom have a higher than average income.

· Product

The MiniDisc similar to a CD is half the size, magnetically encoded and enables 74 minutes of high quality music on one disc. It enables editing and erasing whole tracks or sectors of specific songs. The latest innovation, a network MiniDisc, can be connected to laptop and PC kits that enable users to download digital music files stored on their computers hard drive on to a MiniDisc.

· Promotion

With a major success in Japan, Sony knew they had a world-class product, but the launch in USA proves a failure due to high prices aimed at a young market, and the CD was still in the introductory stage of its product lifecycle. The MD was re-launched with the biggest music giveaway with extensive magazine advertising. Sony also gave away over a million MDs. Although sales had rose but still less than the sales in Japan, as people saw the MD as a replacement for the CD and not the cassette as intended. Sony was lack of support from the record companies. They did not support pre-recorded MDs due to lacking demand from consumers. At this point Sony believed the only reason for poor sales was due to poor marketing. Increased competition from companies meant that there was more support for the product that saw sales increase. Sony worked hard to convince the US market that there was a need for the MD. The main aim of the marketing from the beginning was to show people that the MD was a cool product, which was the way of the future and is a product that fits into our new digital age. With a redesigned logo, Sony has highlighted many similarities and differences between the MD Walkman and the original. Also the use of the Sony Walkman brand name has been used to suggest that the MD Walkman is an upgrade of the original for the future. With adverts such as ‘go create’ and ‘create the soundtrack to your life’ the MD is aimed at the fashion conscience, youth culture and to ‘cool’ people emphasising features such as portability, mobility, edit features and superior sound quality.

· Price

Whenever Sony re-launched the MD prices were cut realising that the price was limiting sales, and also aware that it would take sometime before MD would become affordable to the public. Sony used a price-skimming strategy charging the highest possible price for the MD which strategy worked in Japan. Due to the fact that in Japan CD prices are extremely high, it was more cost effective for the Japanese to buy a MD and to then hire and copy to MD. Demand increased allowing the price to fall due to economies of scale. In America conversely CD prices were low and therefore there was no demand for a high-quality recording device. Another theory is that the consumers have less disposable income as they tend to spend more on real estate and larger products for the home. MD price has clearly been reduced since the introduction making the MD more affordable to the target market. Today, cost of a blank MD is less than a high quality cassette.

· Place (Distribution)

Sony also has a number of independent dealers who deal only in Sony products. Products are distributed to these dealers through a central distribution warehouse who order the products when needed. MDs are widely available on the Internet too.

4. Conclusion

Consumer buyer behaviour is influenced by four keys set of buyer characteristics cultural, social, personal and psychological. Although many of these factors cannot be influenced by the marketer, they can be useful in identifying interested buyers and in shaping products and appeals to serve consumer needs better. Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behaviour. It includes the basic values, perceptions, preferences and behaviour that a person learns from family and other important institutions. Subcultures are “cultures within cultures that have distinct values and lifestyles and can be based on anything from age to ethnicity. People with different cultural and sub-cultural characteristics has different product, and brand preferences. As a result, marketers may want to focus their marketing programs on the special needs of certain groups.

Social factors also influence a buyer’s behaviour. A person’s reference groups � family, friends, social organizations, professional associations � strongly affect product and brand choices. The buyer’s age, life-cycle stage, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, personality and other personal characteristics influence his or her buying decisions. Consumer lifestyles � the whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world � are also an important influence on purchase decisions. Finally, consumer buying behaviour is influenced by four major psychological factors � motivation, perception, learning and belief and attitudes. Each of these factors provides a different perspective for understanding the workings of the buyer’s black box.

5. Bibliography

Ø Frances Brassington / Stephen Pettitt (000), Principles of Marketing, nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, England

Ø Kotler & Armstrong (000), Marketing � An Introduction, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc, USA

Ø Neal / Quester / Hawkins (000), Consumer Behaviour � Implications for Marketing Strategy, nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Australia

Ø Michael R. Solomon (00), Consumer Behavior � Buying, Having, and Being, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall International Inc, USA

Ø Michael J. Baker (16), Marketing � An Introductory Text, 6th Edition, MacMillan Press Ltd, London

Ø Kotler & Armstrong (1), Principles of Marketing, th Edition, Prentice-Hall International Inc, USA

Ø Leon G. Schiffman / Leslie Lazar Kanuk (000), Consumer Behavior, 7th Edition, Prentice-Hall, USA

Journals

Ø Bonoma, T.V., ‘Major sales Who really does the buying?’ Harvard Business Review, 60, May-June, pp. 111-1, 18

Ø Lawson, R.W., ‘The family life cycle a demographic analysis’, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol 4, No. 1., 188

Ø Murphy, P.E. and Staples, W., ‘A modernisedfamily life cycle’, Journal of Consumer Reseach, June, 17

Ø Sheth, J.N. ‘A model of industrial buyer behaviour’, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 50-6, 17

Ø Webster, F.E. and Wind, Y., ‘A general model of organisational buying behaviour’, Journal of marketing, 6, April, pp. 1-17, 17

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paragraphs

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A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.

Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects. Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence.

The debate over whether whiteness studies should be offered in public universities, and should tax dollars be used to pay for these studies is a controversial topic that exists in both the private and public spheres. This debate exists in the private sphere because the American taxpayers, who are also voters, are part of the arguers in this debate. This issue also exists in the public sphere because the issue affects a wide range of people. The issue of race and equality is a controversial topic that deals with the values and expectations of the American public.

Occasions

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The debate over whether whiteness studies should be offered in public universities, and should tax dollars be used to pay for these studies is a controversial topic that exists in both the private and public spheres. This debate exists in the private sphere because the American taxpayers, who are also voters, are part of the arguers in this debate. This issue also exists in the public sphere because the issue affects a wide range of people. The issue of race and equality is a controversial topic that deals with the values and expectations of the American public.

Occasions

The debate over whether whiteness studies should be offered in public universities, and should tax dollars be used to pay for these studies is a controversial topic that exists in both the private and public spheres. This debate exists in the private sphere because the American taxpayers, who are also voters, are part of the arguers in this debate. This issue also exists in the public sphere because the issue affects a wide range of people. The issue of race and equality is a controversial topic that deals with the values and expectations of the American public.

Occasions

The debate over whether whiteness studies should be offered in public universities, and should tax dollars be used to pay for these studies is a controversial topic that exists in both the private and public spheres. This debate exists in the private sphere because the American taxpayers, who are also voters, are part of the arguers in this debate. This issue also exists in the public sphere because the issue affects a wide range of people. The issue of race and equality is a controversial topic that deals with the values and expectations of the American public.

Occasions





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A Hand full of dust

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A Handful of Dust by Evelyn Waugh displays many colliding beliefs through out this novel. The best example is how the characters Tony Last and Mrs. Beaver feel about the social class system of England, which mainly revolves around wealth. Tony Last is a character that has a significant amount of wealth, but does not allow for that to be all he is interested in. However, Mrs. Beaver is very consumed in the social class of England and the wealth that she can obtain. These two characters have very contradicting beliefs about how to live your life with wealth constantly surrounding them. Tony Last does not allow himself to get consumed in this huge art of the social system of England, but Mrs. Beaver does.

Tony Last is a character in this novel that truly cherishes traditions and not wealth. Tony exemplifies those small characteristics of himself so well through out the novel, first by where he lives. He lives in a castle, which holds much importance to him, because the castle represents the old ways of England, such as the feudal system and chivalry. This exemplifies so much about him, because he is told that if he were to sell his home, he would gain great wealth, because the house is worth so much. Although he would be able to be in the social status that Mrs. Beaver enjoys, he didn’t sell the house, because, as said before, tradition is much too important for him. The house he lives in also shows a lot of how he feels about tradition. This is shown well when Mrs. Beaver says, “Twenty years ago people had liked half timber and old pewter.” She is stating that his taste doesn’t quit match that of the modern people of England.

Also, considering the wealth he had, he still enjoyed being able to relate to the average people of the town. That is shown when Tony Last chooses to attend church where all the other town’s people go. By Tony Last attending church, this also shows that morals play a much more important role in his life, than the life of Mrs. Beaver.

Mrs. Beaver is an interior decorator in this novel, and the mother of John Beaver, both of which are very consumed in the amount of wealth one person has. Mrs. Beaver shows that she only has concern for herself and the wealth she has; she has little concern for the people of the lower class. This is shown very well on the very first page of the book, when she speaks of a house fire. First, Mrs. Beaver is asked if anyone was hurt, and her reply was, “No one I am thankful to say, except two housemaids who lost their heads and jumped through a glass roof into the paved court.” This line shows the exact opposite of Tony Last, because she has so few morals compared to him. Also, she sees no importance of the people of the lower class, and does not involve herself with them; therefore, she and Mr. Last vary differently because of his interaction with the town’s people.

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Secondly, Mrs. Beaver says, “The fire never reached the bedrooms I am afraid. Still, they are bound to need doing up, everything black with smoke and drenched in water and luckily they had that old-fashioned sort of extinguisher that ruins everything.” Mrs. Beaver is thankful of this fire because this is an opportunity for her to accumulate some business and of course earn money. When she is hired, Mrs. Beaver always re-decorates the houses very modern, showing her lack of beliefs in tradition. She decorates the interior of houses with very flashy objects, which is a very different style of Tony Last’s house.



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mY DFAVOURITE CARTOON CHARACTER

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Enjoying cartoon is one of mu interests,and Garfield is my favoutite cartoon character.

Garfield is a tubby tabby male cat,very lazy and greed. For example, Garfield loves TV and hates Monday. Hed rather pig out than work out; in fact, his passion for food and sleep is matched only by his aversion to diet and exercise. Moreover, he prefers lay downs to sit ups. Snatching a snooze is his speciality. Hed like mornings better if they started later and his viewpoint about diets is that Diet is die with a t. Garfield also has a sassy brand of humor. He likes to kick off Odie, Garfields faithful friend and whipping dog. Over the years, Odie has been kicked off the kitchen table about a thousand times. And the postman in the Garfield comic strips is another victim.Mauling him is one of Garfields pasttimes. Selfishness also belongs to Garfields character. Whenever he wants to eat, he must eat immediately. This means his owner John has to prepare his food as quickly as possible.

He doesnt care whether John is ready or sleeping.So wakened at night is an everyday occurance for poor John.

Garfields most popular and funniest cat in the world. Though he is so sassy and sarcastic, I love him all the same. What makes Garfield so lovable? Its simple...people relate to him because he is them.Hes a human in a cat suit,as creator Jim Davis likes to say.

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The writer Jim Davis once said we live in times which have the exhausting tempo of city life and sharp competition. It is even criminal for us to indulge ourselves a little. But Garfield says, it doesnt matter if you have a rest.Lets have some dessert. You neednt have high morale today. I think this is the reason that Garfield is popular in all the world. Everybodys heart hide a Garfield ,and he is ready to jump out !



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Tobacco in Advertising

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Tobacco in Advertising

When you ask a tobacco sales representative whether teens are their main advertising focus, they would say no. But when the majority of retail outdoor advertising occurs in tobacco convenience stores where around 75% of teens shop at least once a week , it’s hard to believe. Major tobacco brands have been targeting teens since day one for three reasons. They are easily influenced by advertising. Tobacco companies establish brand loyalty with teens. Finally teens are the largest advertising market.

A teen being sensitive and influential by tobacco advertisements is their number one reason why these companies target this market. Because of the fact that teens are in the stages of trying new things and figuring out who they want to be makes them times as influential to these ads. A study in the journal of the National Cancer Institute found that teens are more likely to be influenced to smoke by cigarette advertising than they are by peer pressure . To some teens what the older generations are doing, like the ones in many advertisements, is more important than what their own peers do. Evidence that Tobacco companies are well aware of these statements is the fact their advertising budget in youth magazines has risen from $58.5 million in 18 to $67.4 in 1 . They are obviously well aware that teens are influenced by advertising and are taking full advantage of it.

Another reason tobacco companies targets teens is the fact they want them to establish a solid brand loyalty. Chances are the older generations have already chosen a brand that they have been using year after year and they aren’t looking to change. Teens on the other hand are just starting to look at brands if they are looking to pick up smoking and these companies want to be their choice. Also, mathematically teenagers who are addicted to or picking up smoking will be smoking longer than adults. To be able to establish the brand loyalty, tobacco companies are trying to influence America’s youth as young as possible. They spend millions directly at teens with the knowledge they can gain brand loyalty .

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The third reason that tobacco companies advertise to teens is that they are the largest advertising market. It is a proven that Teens look at advertisements more than adults. America’s youth is trying to find out if smoking is really for them and the right brand to go along with it, which causes them to look at more advertisements. This is the very reason why in retailers you will see that only .8% of ads are at high-levels (eye levels of adults) and 4.% of them are at low-height (eye levels of teens and children.) Because teens are such a large market, tobacco companies continue targeting them so they can continue profiting in the billions. Even after the Master Settlement Agreement of 18, which prohibits direct or indirect advertising targeted to people under the age of 18, tobacco companies have found alternative ways to advertise at their largest market. They continue reaching out to teens in order sustain a their desirable profits from their largest market.

Tobacco companies are unmorally targeting teens in order to socially gain for themselves. They do so because they know youth is easily influenced by cigarette ads, they are trying to establish brand loyalty, and teens are their largest undecided market. Even though they had made an agreement in the Master Settlement Agreement to stop advertising to teenagers, they continue doing so. Cigarette companies spend an average of $167 million dollars to a single state in the US, think about how many teens are being effected each day by those ads. So the next time you talk to a sales representative for a tobacco company and he tells you their not focusing their advertising at teen, you can tell him not to lie the truths out.





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corruption in denmark

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Corruption in Denmark In the play ‘Hamlet’ by Shakespeare, the integrity of somecharacters are all challenged with honesty and deceit. The King of Denmark isdeteriorating and rotting the state and its people. Many images of corruption, spying, and decay compound as the play moves on, because Claudius is trying to find out what his nephew, Hamlet, is planning. A description of some of the points of defilement in detail and what they mean follows. As the scene opens, there is a party, and a party-pooper. The party is somewhat of a classy type,

where all the people are dressed in fancy dresses and nice suits and one person in black. That person is Hamlet. Claudius, the late kings’ brother, is marrying his widow, Gertrude, less than months of his brother’s death. This is a sign of corruption. Claudius tries to make it seem like nothing big has happened. He describes that he is sad, everyone should be sad, but it is best to think of the dead king with “wisest sorrow”. That is, life goes on and doesn’t stop for a single person’s death. Claudius also adds “With mirth (gladness) in funeral and dirge (grief) in marriage”. This is one of many paradoxes in this paradoxical play, but the king doesn’t mean it as a paradox. The second sign of decay is that Hamlet wants to avenge is fathers death, and bring justice to the murderer. Marcallus, Horatio, and Barnardo notify Hamlet of a ghost that appears before them, one who looks like King Hamlet. Horatio adds that the appearance of the

Ghost reminds him of what he has read in portents in Rome, just before the assassination of Julius Caesar, when “The graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead / Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets.” Hamlet listens to his loyal friends, and decides to see what this is about. The ghost speaks to Hamlet, and tells him he is “thy father’s spirit,” and must soon return to the prison of purgatory and its flames. Ghost “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder… “Murder most foul, as in the best it is; But this most foul, strange and unnatural… “A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark Is by a forged process of my death Rankly abused but you know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father’s life Now wears his crown.” Hamlet “O my prophetic soul! My uncle!” Yes indeed Claudius killed Hamlets father. This is a great sign of corruption. Hamlet must have revenge on Claudius and avenge is fathers ‘most unnatural murder’. Claudius becomes suspicious of Hamlet and sends for Rosentcrantz and Guildenstern. He immediately greets them and gets down to business right away. He wants to find out why Hamlet is acting weird, and needs to be assured that it is only because of his fathers passing away. Claudius “Welcome, dear Rosencrantz and Guildenstern! Moreover that we much did long to see you, The need we have to use you did provoke Our hasty sending. Something have you heard Of Hamlets transformation; so call it, Sith nor the exterior nor the inward man Resembles that it was. What it should be, More than his fathers death, that thus hath put him So much from the understanding of himself, I cannot dream of I entreat you both, That, being of so young days brought up with him, And sith so neighbourd to his youth and havior, That you vouchsafe your rest here in our court Some little time so by your companies To draw him on to pleasures, and to gather, So much as from occasion you may glean, Whether aught, to us unknown, afflicts him thus, That, opend, lies within our remedy.” Claudius asks the two men to hang out with Hamlet and see what is wrong with him. He says, “I cannot dream of” what might be wrong. We suspect is that what the King really wants to know is what Hamlet knows or suspects, or what he may do. He has the whole state in his hand. The king not only uses some of Hamlets best friends as bait, but also uses his last love. The King, Gertrude, and Polonius influence Ophelia to help them find out what is wrong with Hamlet. They hope her “virtues” (sweet, kind, loving) will help figure out what Hamlet knows and planning. From out of the blue when Hamlet and Ophelia are talking, he asks the same question as he did with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, if they were “sent for”. Hamlet notices Polonius behind the curtain and explodes in rage. “I say, we will have no more marriages those who are married already, all but one, shall live; the rest shall keep as they are.” Now the King knows of Hamlets odd behavior. The corruption has not stopped yet. Polonius suggests that Polonius Let his queen mother all alone entreat him To show his grief let her be round with him; And Ill be placed, so please you, in the ear Of all their conference. If she find him not, To England send him, or confine him where Your wisdom best shall think. Now they are dragging Hamlets mother into this. She probably has been in it from the start, the murder of King Hamlet, because why would she marry again so quickly after his death? Polonius gives the queen directions to talk to Hamlet and chew him out, and even threaten him. Polonius says, “He will come straight. Look you lay home to him Tell him his pranks have been too broad to bear with”. She starts off offending Hamlet Queen Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offended. Hamlet Mother, you have my father much offended. Queen Come, come, you answer with an idle tongue. Hamlet Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue. Hamlet cannot trust anyone, except the Ghost and Horatio. Hamlet knows that everyone is spying on him, and he must end what is rotting in the state of Denmark. If I were Hamlet I would trust no one, avenge my fathers’ death, and bring peace to Denmark. The integrity of some characters is all challenged with honesty and deceit. Claudius starts the deteriorating of Denmark, and it slowly seeps down the chain.



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dirty

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JIM THE BOY

Main Characters Jim Glass, Uncle Zeno, Uncle Coran, Mama (Elizabeth Glass), Penn Carson, and Uncle Al.

Setting Aliceville, North Carolina from 15 to 15 (during the depression)

Throughout Jim’s life, he desires to travel up Lynn’s mountain, where his grandfather lives. About a week before Jim was born in 14, his father died, leaving him with his depressed mother.

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Jim the boy is a story about Jim Glass, a 10-year-old boy who must live his life without the guidance of his father, but by the guidance of his three uncles- Uncle Zeno, Uncle Coran, and Uncle Al. Throughout the book , these people teach Jim who he is and the value of a dollar during this time.

Through Jim’s journey of life, he wants to grow up very urgently. As he begins to grow, he notices the harsh reality being grown-up brings.

As a gift for his eleventh birthday, his uncles bring him to Lynn Mountain to see his grandfather, Amos, whom he has not seen in his life, but is certainly known by Amos’ mistakes! When he reaches the mountain, he learns that he does not need to grow up. He is still a boy and he wants to live out his life to the fullest before he grows up.

This story taught me that during the depression, a dollar was worth a lot! I didn’t think only a dollar would be worth fighting that much for! For example, when the school fair came, there was a dollar at the top of a sticky, hard to climb pole, and the person who got to the top of the pole first would be able to have the dollar. It was amazing all of the things these 10-year-old boys thought of just to try and get the dollar! This book has certainly taught me how most people can just throw away money and we need to be more useful with what we buy.

The story relates to history because it happened during the depression. During the depression, even a young 10-year-old boy understood some of the things that we as 10 year olds would never be able to comprehend. I am not talking intelligence, also, these boys had much more moral values than we as a society would ever have! The way Jim and his friends would talk to an adult or an older person was with more respect. As a society, we do not respect anyone or anything!







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frankenstein excerpt

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This passage from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein functions as a pivotal point in narrative progression, a prophetic plot device, as well as a thematic emblem within the novel. Literary devices such as evocative language, narrative point of view, imagery, metaphor and intertextuality create a resonance between the passage and the ideas and events within the novel. The excerpt has a prime function as an index against which the issues and narrative progression of the novel may be qualified and contextualized.

This excerpt functions as a pivotal point in the narrative progression of the novel, the infusion of the “spark of being” (p 4) into the creature signifying the beginning of a destructive momentum which steers Frankenstein and his human attachments to ruin. The passage marks a radical change in the tenor of the novel; Frankenstein’s altruistic dreams of achievement are quashed by the birth of a “miserable monster” (p 5), chrystallising the inherent conflict between his “emotional nature and intellectual aspirations . A sense of dramatic climax is created through contrasting word selection; the loftiness of Frankenstein’s expectations portrayed through phrases such as “the beauty of the dream” (p 5) and “I had desired it with an ardor that far exceeded moderation” (p5), are contrasted with his horror at the crude reality of his creation, “horror and disgust filled my heart” (p 5). Frankenstein’s abandonment of the creature, his “escape” into the courtyard, also reinforces the change in the pitch of the novel, signifying the point at which his creation becomes an abortion.



The passage also has an important prophetic function within the novel. Death and destruction are equated with the birth of Frankenstein’s monster, preempting the downfall of the protagonist and his human attachments through the “murderous autonomy of excessive ambition . Frankenstein’s dream of Elizabeth, transmuted into images of his dead mother, is a prophetic device employed by Shelley which foreshadows the death of Elizabeth. In the passage, juxtaposition of the dead Elizabeth with the presence of the creation (“forcing its way through the window shutters” (p 5)) upon Frankenstein’s awakening, emphatically reinforces the intrinsic link between the creation of the monster and the destruction of Frankenstein’s companions. Storm imagery is also employed in the passage as a prophetic device which foreshadows Frankenstein’s steady dissolution towards tragedy. Storm imagery punctuates Victor’s interactions with his creature, “cast as symbols of unleashed destruction” , forging a strong association between the creation of monster and the gradual stripping of Frankenstein’s attachments. The creature is animated amidst “rain patter[ing] dismally against the panes” (p 4), while “Clouds hid the mood…The wind was high” (p 100) on the night of Clervald’s murder by the creature. Similarly, on the evening of the murder of Elizabeth “a heavy storm of rain descended” (p1016). Thus the passage has an important prophetic function, forcing the reader to qualify the downfall of the protagonists in relation to the birth of Frankenstein’s creation.

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The ambiguous nature of ambition, the morality of science, and the responsibility of the creator are three prevalent themes whose significance echoes throughout the novel, giving the excerpt significance as a thematic emblem against which the narrative progression of the novel can be qualified. The ambiguous nature of ambition, which marries the ardent pursuit of unparalleled achievement with immense human cost, is chrystallised in Frankenstein’s reaction to the animation of his creation. The emotional polarity expressed by Frankenstein, who eagerly awaited the infusion of life into the corpse with “anxiety that almost amounted to agony” (p 4) but who was beset with “breathless horror and disgust” (p 5) upon completing the task, alludes to a sense of “loss through gain” . This Faustian ambiguity of ambition is paralleled in the situation of Walton, whose “ardent curiosity with the sight of the world never before visited” (p 1), stems to an intense sense of isolation (“I have no friend Margaret” (p15)). The contrast and interplay between these two narrators, their convergence in the harsh climate of the North Pole, creates a resonance between them through which the human cost of ambition can be qualified against the allure of achievement.

Questions surrounding the morality of science stem from Frankenstein’s transgression of natural order whereby he “infuse[s] a spark of being into the lifeless thing” (p 4). His endeavor to emulate and supersede the female capacity for childbirth is emphasized through the dream of his dead mother and Elizabeth which juxtaposes those with capacity for natural creation with Frankenstein’s artificial methods. From this feminist perspective, Victor’s dream of his dead mother upon the animation of his creation, can also be construed as a warning against subversion of natural forces , equating death with the birth of the creature. Frankenstein’s scientific exploit is also synonymous with “defiance of God” , and this act is held up to scrutiny through Promethean allusions which run throughout the novel. Frankenstein’s utterance of the words “Great God!” (p 5), draws attention to his endeavor to enter the realm of the creator. However his tremendous horror at the wretchedness brings a painful awareness of human alienation from the divine . Frankenstein’s ultimate inability to circumvent the role of creator and the imprudence of such an endeavor resonates throughout the novel, epitomized by the death of Elizabeth as foreseen in the passage, which draws attention to the serious repercussions of his exploits.

From a relational dynamics perspective, Frankenstein’s failure to love and assume parental responsibility for his creature is shown to correlate with the development of the creature’s monstrosity , thus his abandonment of the creature in this passage is significant in the narrative development. When Frankenstein is reflecting on the process of the creature’s construction, emphasis on singular body parts of the creature (“his hair was of a lustrous black and flowing, his teeth of a pearly whiteness” (p 5)) alludes to his unwillingness to assume responsibility for the self-conscious animate entity. This unwillingness is also illustrated in Frankenstein’s stream of conscious, “unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created” (p 5), and is crystallised in his compulsive abandonment of the creature. However, the phobic flight of the creator is contrasted with an evocative description of the innocence and dependence of the creature; “one hand was stretched out, seemingly to detain me” (p 5), and this submerged cry for companionship in the midst of perpetual abandonment permeates the development of the creature’s monstrosity throughout the novel. The monster appeals to Frankenstein, alluding to his initial innocence which has been corrupted through abandonment; “I ought to be thy Adam, but rather I am the fallen angel” (p 60). Thus the violent actions of the monster can be assessed in relation to his innocence illustrated in this passage which is then tainted by abandonment.



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Compare and Contrast Essay

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Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

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Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!

Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!

Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!

Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!

Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!

Australia what can you say about it? When it comes to food, language and family cultural element

there is much to know. It will also be obvious that the U.S. and Australia share many similarities and

differences in these areas.

In Australia food has changed over the years. Australians used to eat lizard and hund a lot.

Now they dine like anyone else in the world. They have three meals a day, breakfast, lunch and

dinner. But when it comes to manners, Australians put a lot of emphasis on them. Australians can

not leave the table unless everyone is finished eating. On the other hand, America is less strict with

table manners. Sometimes families dont even eat together, but they may sit in front of the TV to eat.

Have you ever wanted to say Gaday Mate and not have someone think youre crazy? If so, then

just move to Australia. The Australian language is mainly English, but some natives still use the

Aboriginal language. This is couple of Aboriginal sayings, Fair dunkum. This means honest and

true. Another example is yank, which means American. Australia is trying to encourage English.

Most people use English. On the other hand, Americans always use English. That is our main

language. Australian and American languages are very similar. Grandparents and older people

still use the language that they grew up with . The currant generation, however, is using English.

Well, Gaday Mate!



Please note that this sample paper on Compare and Contrast Essay is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Compare and Contrast Essay, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Compare and Contrast Essay will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Choice is always influenced by something, this something leads to the choice therefore altering destiny. Choice can be influenced by change, as it was in Pleasantville, by ambition, like the mothers in the documentary “Painted babies”, or by actions and a particular situation in which gives us a different aspect therefore leading to choice-making.

In “The Divine Wind” by Garry Disher the key choices are made by character’s and do not only affect that particular character’s destiny but the consequences of the choice effects the fate of the characters around them. A core decision made which was fatal was the decision made by Michael Penrose to ride on the lugger in the wet season. Zeke Sennosuke Michael’s partner on the ocean “.. Was quietly smoking a cigarette and wasn’t convinced by my fathers enthusiasm” However Zeke followed Michael’s assumed intuition and went out into the rough ocean, leaving his family, leaving Broome, and loosing his life. Michael’s choice effected not only Zeke, Mitsy and Sadako’s life but also his own,“ he sat in darkness, he missed his old active life even though it had ultimately been the source of his greatest guilt and sorrow”

Michael felt responsible for Zeke’s death and filled with remorse he believed he owed the widows something especially Sadako. Michael’s choice to have Mitsy and Sadako stay for their protection was a choice that effected lifestyles and created close relationships. A quote that distinctly portrays the decision-making of this situation was when Jamie Killian was searching Mitsy and Sadako’s house for papers.

“ Should we or shouldn’t we see if Sadako and Mitsy were ok?

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If we walked down John Chi lane now, free men, Europeans, wouldn’t’ it be seen as flaunting our freedom and superiority.”

The result of this choice lead to the protection of Mitsy and Sadako’s life and privacy.

The final core choice in “the Divine Wind” is made by Hartley Penrose and poses the situation of life and death situation again however Hartley has a choice in the occurrence.

“I gazed at him. I could let him die. I could let him drown or burn or be tugged beneath the deep by a man-eater, His hand rose. I took it”

This is incredibly momentous as it shows the decision-making as well as the consideration of the consequences.

“Stopping by the woods on a snowy evening describe a world offering perfect, quiet and solitude existing side by side with a realisation that there is another, world, a world of people, responsibilities and social obligations. The character remembers the promises he has to keep; the miles to travel, and the call of responsibility prove stronger than the attraction of the woods. The ascription of “lovely” to this scene, effacing snow and black night complicates rather than alleviates when considering how pervasive the connotations of dangerous isolation and menacing death are. “Stopping by the Woods on a snowy night” stages its play of opposites between night and day, storm and hearth, nature and culture, individual and group, freedom and responsibility. Therefore it is the choice of personal involvement over withdrawal and death.

The choices mothers of beauty pageant competitors make affect the young girl’s childhood and autonomy. Brooke Breedwell was a five-year-old girl pushed forward and exploited by her mother, turned to adult ambitions and fantasies while still an infant. However the phenomenon of child beauty contests would not be possible without the intutionalised subordination of the child. The remarkable degree of control they have and exert over the child’s body, moreover the choice of act the child is taught to perform. The acts performed pose a sexual demeanour- this is inappropriate for their age group. Although parents have complete control over their children’s bodies and minds, training the children to think that beauty pageants are all they have to aim for, Brooke had a significant amount of control over her parents. At this age a child should not have such a huge responsibility put on them and the pressure of early maturity, they should just live the natural life of innocence and purity. Mother’s have the best intentions but their choices for their child are not very nurturing.



Please note that this sample paper on choices is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on choices, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on choices will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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