Learning

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Learning

• Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience

• Early behaviorists were protesting Structuralism

• Stimulus�Response psychology the attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response

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Learning

• Classical Conditioning

• Operant Conditioning

• Other Kinds of Learning

Behaviorism Assumptions

• Determinism all cause and effect

• Ineffective mental explanations

• The power of the environment

Classical Conditioning

• Pavlov, Ivan

• Study started when noticed effect of “teasing” the dogs with food.

• Innate automatic connections unconditioned reflexes between a stimulus such as food and a response such as secreting digestive juices

Classical Conditioning

• Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

• Unconditioned response (UCR)

• Conditioned stimulus (CS)

• Conditioned response (CR)

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

• An stimulus that automatically elicits an unconditioned response

• Pavlov’s dogs meat

• Puff of air into the eye

• Chemotherapy

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

• An automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus

• Pavlov’s dogs saliva

• Eye blink

• Nausea and Vomiting

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

• A Stimulus that comes to evoke a particular response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

• Pavlov’s dog bell

• Train sound prior to air

• Nurse who administers chemotherapy

Conditioned Response

• Whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to to elicit as a result of the conditioning procedure

• Pavlov’s dogs salivate when hear the bell

• People can be trained to blink to the bell

• Patient sees nurse at Walmart and becomes nauseated and vomits.

Classical Conditioning in Advertising

• Popular Song used in advertising fast food products Catsup Carly Simon “Anticipation”

• Typical beer commercial

� Sexy Person Arousal (UCS-UCR)

� Beer + Sexy Person Arousal (CS+UCS UCR)

� Beer Arousal (CS CR)

Find a commercial or advertisement and fill in the conditioning procedure

• Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response

• Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response

• Neutral Stimulus Becomes Conditioned Stimulus by Association Conditioned StimulusConditioned Response

Phenomena of Classical Conditioning

• Acquisition

• Extinction

• Spontaneous Recovery

• Stimulus Generalization

Watson and Little Albert

• Little Albert 11 mos old, afraid of loud noises but not afraid of animals

• Watson paired loud noises with lab rat

• Little Albert became afraid of lab rat

• Little Albert was also afraid of white stuffed animal, a dog, a fur coat.

• “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well informed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select�doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man thief�regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors” (Watson, 15, p. 8)

Operant Condition Guru

• Shaping

• Chaining

• Reinforcement

� Positive

� Negative

• Punishment

Basic Tenets of Operant Conditioning

1. Behavior that is followed by positive environmental effects (positive reinforcement, or reward) increases in frequency.

. Behavior that is followed by the withdrawal of negative environmental effects (negative reinforcement) also increases in frequency.

. Behavior that is followed by negative environmental effects (punishment) decreases in frequency.

4. When behavior that was previously increased in frequency through reinforcement is no longer reinforced, it decreases in frequency (extinction).

Other Kinds of Learning

• Taste Aversion

� Eating something and getting sick

• Birdsong Learning

� Sensitive Period

• Social Learning

� Bandura, Albert

� Modeling & Imitation

Social Learning

• Vicarious Reinforcement & Punishment

� If your friend is successful, then you can be successful (business, dating) Imitate

• Self-Efficacy

� The perception that they themselves could perform the task successfully.

• Self Reinforcement & Self Punishment



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