Steroids in Athletes

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Steroids in Athletes

Athletics have always brought out the competitive side of people; in today’s society the will to win has been taken to a new level, to the point where athletes are using legal and illegal drugs to enhance their power and stamina. There are a number of drugs that can help enhance your performance but in this paper I will focus on anabolic androgen steroids, which are a derivation of testosterone (Yesalis xxiv). But many of the negative results that occur because of the use of steroids are similar to those of other drugs. The number of positive steroid test at Olympic events appears to be falling; the high level of anabolic steroids usage by bodybuilders and weightlifters and by teens is still shockingly high. Therefore I will be concentrating on the use and effects of steroids on bodybuilders and weightlifters.

An Athlete’s definition of heath includes a number of qualities; the first is not being sick and the absence of injury. But the main and most important part of being healthy to them is being able to carry out a routine practice or a work out. Their quality of life is very similar to how they define health. The most important thing to athletes, those using drugs especially, is being muscular being the best at their sport, and being in the best shape possible. Wellness would be an athlete’s perception of their health. If their health is good then according to them their wellness is good. Such is the same for the opposite. Exercise on the other hand is an athletes training, which is done usually for a 1 1/ to hours, six days a week. Usually their work out is a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

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Nutrition as you can imagine plays a very important role to an athlete’s performance. Most athletes follow the recommended low fat, high complex carbohydrate diet. The athlete also follows a different regimen during different periods of their schedule. For example nutrition for an athlete during training might include high carbohydrates (60-70% of total calorie intake), low fat, low protein content, low salt and minimal bulk foods and an adequate fluid availability.

The day before the event the athlete increases carbohydrate and fluid intake and foods high in fat, salt, bulks are avoided. The day of the event water and carbohydrates are the main source and electrolyte intake is usually avoided. The day after the event or right after the event the athlete must make sure to have enough fluids and carbohydrates to avoid dehydration and glycogen depletion. As you can tell that optimal nutrition is a basic training component necessary for the development and maintenance of top physical performance. “A good diet in itself cannot provide fitness or championship form, but a poor diet can ruin both. ”



Using drugs, any kind of drug, harms your body. The big problem with drug usage is you don’t see the negative affects right away, you only see the positive results. The results you see immediately are positive ones. There is an increase in tissue building, in muscle bulk and strength and decrease in body fat. The long-term results are not so glamorous.

There have been cases of mortality as well as death from cancer. Clotting abnormalities can also be produced by some androgens as well as musculoskeletal injuries. The list goes on and on from increased facial hair growth and acne to heart disease and effects on the nervous system development and functioning.

The main reason for someone to take steroids is to increase strength and performance, but ironically it decreases performance in a way. Steroid use is usually accompanied by tendon injury and damage, which can ruin an athlete’s training. Steroid intake causes the body to make abnormal collagen, a white gelatinous substance that forms the tendon fibers. Steroids reduce the tensile strength of new collagen until much of the tendon is weakened. This type of injury takes at least three weeks for the muscle to heal-which is too long to not train.

Anabolic steroids not only affect the athlete physically but also mentally, socially and there family life. Personality changes include an increase sense of well-being and energy. But on the other side of the spectrum there is an increase of aggression, sexuality, unpredictability and irritability. This combination usually leads to divorce in a married situation, and in an unmarried or in any situation rape has a higher occurrence as well as physical abuse as a result of an uncontrollable temper. With long time use there has been cases were the users had “sub threshold” or equivocal psychotic symptoms and there were reports of the users having manic episodes.

Some athletes have become so dependent on their appearance and the pumped feeling from the steroids that they get depressed, can’t sleep, can’t eat right, and can even become suicidal due to the psychological withdraw symptoms.

There are no real negative affects on the athlete’s nutrition and fitness level, since the athlete’s main concern is to be in top shape. There is however one downfall with nutrition habits anyway. Many athletes think that since protein helps build muscle and strength, the more protein they intake the more muscle they will gain. This theory however is wrong and can greatly harm their health. As Colgan states that no additional protein is needed for an athlete. The recommended daily allowance of .75 grams of protein per kilogram bodyweight for sedentary folk-otherwise about 15-0% of daily calorie intake- is enough protein for any athlete. Too much protein can cause a number of problems like dehydration, renal disease, gall bladder disease and hypercholesterolemia.

There are many health risks if the athlete continues to live a life doing drugs, specify anabolic steroids. The following are the major or most common side effects that can get worst the longer you continue on the drug.

To help an athlete be physically in top shape without using drugs there are a number of things that can be done. An athlete on drugs main objective is to perform and train without use of drugs and to reduce the amount of protein intake. The following are goals to help obtain your objective.

1) One of the most important things to realize is that it takes time to get results;

you will not see immediate results. It also takes at least three months for the body to get use to the training and for the metabolism to be affected.

) When weight training you should not work out a body part at a time but a body

system, for example Shoulders, chest and upper back Arms and shoulders

Chest, back and legs It is also recommended that you do a four set routine First set warm up of maximum strength for 1-15 reps. Second maximum for 6-8 reps. Third maximum for 4-6 reps Fourth flushes system with maximum weight for 0 reps. Each exercise should be done once a week, allowing muscles to recover, and each training session should be no longer then an hour and a half .

As time progresses weight and reps should be increased. Put a measurement on your workout look at the rate at which your goals are begin met, or if being met at all.

) Nutrition wise there are certain foods that should generally be avoided even if you are not training.

a) Saturated foods have no advantages and should be avoided, although it is

impossible to avoid them entirely.

b) Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid is essential for athletes.

c) The lower the percent of fat intake the better, Colgan recommends to 15% of

fat intake.

d) Essential fatty acids should also be included in the diet, for example walnuts,

soybeans and pumpkin seeds.

e) Protein intake does not have to be increased but if the athlete wants to eat a little more then usual it is ok as long as they avoid bad protein, beefsteak, bacon, butter, pork, loin. Good protein should be eaten even if protein intake is normal. An example of good protein is egg whites, grilled chicken, flounder (grill or dry), shrimp (steamed) and tuna in water.

Obviously for an athlete not use to eating a healthy diet it is going to be impossible to change their diet all at once. So as the weeks go on their diet should look more like the above goals. This should be measured not by the amount of calorie intake but by the amount of good, nutritious food eaten.

Steroids are unfortunately used widely across the nation and world, in many sports by all kinds of athletes. The only way athletes will realize that there are other things that can be done to increase their performance without drugs is if they are taught the way to train and eat right to befit their training. I think Colgan put it best when he said “Drugs work, no doubt about it. But optimum nutrition, works equally as well and has no downsides, neither for health nor for the human spirit.”



References

Alan, G (188). The Anabolic Steroids and Peptide Hormones. In David R. Mott ram (ed.), Drugs in Sport (pp17-18). London E & FN Spon.

Bahrke, M. (1). Psychological Effects of Endogenous Testosterone and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. In Charles E. Yesalis (ed), Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise (pp 16-178). Illinois Human Kineties Publishers.

Colgan, Dr Michael, (1). Optimum Sports Nutrition Your Competitive Edge. New York Advanced Research Press.

Friedl, K (1). Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Physical Health. In Charles E. Yesalis (ed), Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise (pp 16-178). Illinois Human Kineties Publishers.

Hecker, A.(187). Nutrition and Physical Performance. In Richard H. Strauss (ed.), Drugs and Performance in Sports (pp-5). Philadelphia W.B. Saunders Company.

Wadler, G., & Haihline, B. (18). Drugs and the Athlete. Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.



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Learning

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Learning

• Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience

• Early behaviorists were protesting Structuralism

• Stimulus�Response psychology the attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response

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Learning

• Classical Conditioning

• Operant Conditioning

• Other Kinds of Learning

Behaviorism Assumptions

• Determinism all cause and effect

• Ineffective mental explanations

• The power of the environment

Classical Conditioning

• Pavlov, Ivan

• Study started when noticed effect of “teasing” the dogs with food.

• Innate automatic connections unconditioned reflexes between a stimulus such as food and a response such as secreting digestive juices

Classical Conditioning

• Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

• Unconditioned response (UCR)

• Conditioned stimulus (CS)

• Conditioned response (CR)

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

• An stimulus that automatically elicits an unconditioned response

• Pavlov’s dogs meat

• Puff of air into the eye

• Chemotherapy

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

• An automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus

• Pavlov’s dogs saliva

• Eye blink

• Nausea and Vomiting

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

• A Stimulus that comes to evoke a particular response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

• Pavlov’s dog bell

• Train sound prior to air

• Nurse who administers chemotherapy

Conditioned Response

• Whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to to elicit as a result of the conditioning procedure

• Pavlov’s dogs salivate when hear the bell

• People can be trained to blink to the bell

• Patient sees nurse at Walmart and becomes nauseated and vomits.

Classical Conditioning in Advertising

• Popular Song used in advertising fast food products Catsup Carly Simon “Anticipation”

• Typical beer commercial

� Sexy Person Arousal (UCS-UCR)

� Beer + Sexy Person Arousal (CS+UCS UCR)

� Beer Arousal (CS CR)

Find a commercial or advertisement and fill in the conditioning procedure

• Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response

• Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response

• Neutral Stimulus Becomes Conditioned Stimulus by Association Conditioned StimulusConditioned Response

Phenomena of Classical Conditioning

• Acquisition

• Extinction

• Spontaneous Recovery

• Stimulus Generalization

Watson and Little Albert

• Little Albert 11 mos old, afraid of loud noises but not afraid of animals

• Watson paired loud noises with lab rat

• Little Albert became afraid of lab rat

• Little Albert was also afraid of white stuffed animal, a dog, a fur coat.

• “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well informed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select�doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man thief�regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors” (Watson, 15, p. 8)

Operant Condition Guru

• Shaping

• Chaining

• Reinforcement

� Positive

� Negative

• Punishment

Basic Tenets of Operant Conditioning

1. Behavior that is followed by positive environmental effects (positive reinforcement, or reward) increases in frequency.

. Behavior that is followed by the withdrawal of negative environmental effects (negative reinforcement) also increases in frequency.

. Behavior that is followed by negative environmental effects (punishment) decreases in frequency.

4. When behavior that was previously increased in frequency through reinforcement is no longer reinforced, it decreases in frequency (extinction).

Other Kinds of Learning

• Taste Aversion

� Eating something and getting sick

• Birdsong Learning

� Sensitive Period

• Social Learning

� Bandura, Albert

� Modeling & Imitation

Social Learning

• Vicarious Reinforcement & Punishment

� If your friend is successful, then you can be successful (business, dating) Imitate

• Self-Efficacy

� The perception that they themselves could perform the task successfully.

• Self Reinforcement & Self Punishment



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Moore Than Technology

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Technology is advancing but how does that affect you? � Levi Buzolic reports

In this day and age technology is advancing at an incredible rate, so fast in fact that we are building beyond our needs, so is technology going to fast for us or is it just keeping up with the times? The ever-changing world of computers is something we all pride ourselves on. Since the 10’s computers have become faster, smaller and more apart of our every day lives. With each new advance, it is met with a greater problem or task, thus the need to further improve.

In recent months we have seen some advances in technology that will seem never to be challenged. This is evident in graphics card company ATI; they have recently, with the cooperation and support of Mitsubishi Electrics, created a graphics card and a monitor that can display many more colors that are definable to the human eye. This allows for more advanced color shading and smoothing that would have other wise been done by Dithering (used to trick the eye into seeing more colors that what is used, by closely placed pixels) The companies say that there is possible use in extending the vision capabilities of the human eye. “They will be like augmentations similar to sci-fi movies!” says Mitsubishi Electrics spokesperson Pat Sturmon.

A well known ‘law’ of computers is Moore’s Law, it states that every eighteen months processor speeds will double. This law has been extremely accurate for many years now but this may soon come to an end. Over the last year processor manufacturers have begun to realize the end of silicon based chips; “For so many years it’s been about adding more transistors, increasing the speed” “We have come to realize that there is a limit to what we can fit on the chips. Due to the nature of silicon” said AMD CEO Michael Barr. In just a few years processors will have be made in completely new way and out of a new material, luckily developers spotted this early and have been working on the project for nine months already. Intel CEO Craig Barrett said “This hasn’t happened since the beginnings of the first CPU’s”. This will mean that the speed increases of processors will pause for a moment as the new architecture is brought in and then the predicted ‘jump’ where speeds should soar beyond Moore’s Law and then return to normal. Both Intel and AMD, CPU’s biggest players are working on a new chipset which will overcome this barrier.

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Another expanding IT industry is the Graphics Cards. These are cards you insert into your computer to increase the speed, quality and performance of D rendering and games alike. The have come a long way over the years. “What we find scary is that GPU (graphics processing unit) speeds have exceeded the beloved Moore’s Law of the CPU market” says nVidia’s deputy spokesperson Geoff Naylor at a recent press conference in America. GPU’s are currently doubling in speed in less than ten months. “Although market is young, I believe that we can hold this speed advance for a few years to come” boasted Mr. Naylor. Because of the graphics market being relatively new, competition is extremely fierce. As companies try to establish a solid foot-hold in the multi-billion dollar mountain. The big players ATI, nVidia and dfx have all held the leading position, but none as long as nVidia, Mr. Naylor said “Only just recently have we been knocked from number one for speed, but our sales still exceed all competitors”, “We plan to hit back with our new card, the GeForce FX”.

Games too are advancing at an incredible pace. They are becoming more realistic, graphical and user interactive. It was just six months ago where buying the latest computer assured you of playing every game released for a year. But recently this has changed, if you brought a new computer during October 00 � January 00, you would find yourself in a situation where games released over the next few months would be too graphically intense for your system to handle. This is because games companies have hit a new level of graphics. These include special hardware engines that allow you to display a normal flat textured wall with amazing detail in every bump, crevasse and texture. This is a new effect called bump mapping which uses advanced texture rendering engines to turn flat objects into realistically textured bricks, landscapes or stone. It’s only now where software has come level with hardware technology and it is expected to stay the same way for quite some time.

The world of computers is always changing and keeping up with it is harder than ever. Ralph Barrett of JayCar Electronics and Lantaztic in Joondalup says “Being in the IT industry for well over twenty years, I’ve seen a lot of changes, not only in the computers themselves but how and why we use them.” He also said “the only way I can understand the new is to learn the [old] and work upwards”. Mr. Barrett is required to learn all of the new computer and electronic technologies in order to repair them. “I’ve been in training for as long as I can remember and now I’m still training myself.”

Change is mostly good and the improvements usually beneficial, but are we going too far ahead of ourselves? Is there a limit to the technology? One thing is for certain and that is the end is far from near and we still have a long way to go. Besides, it’s nothing ‘Moore’ than technology…

- Levi B



Bibliography

Fordham, A. (00) Processors; The Big Guns! PC PowerPlay. Issue #84 March 00

Fordham, A. (00) Graphics Cards; The New Age. PC PowerPlay. Issue #75 may 00

Intel� Processor Road Map (00) Intel� Corporation [on-line] Location http//www.intel.com/products/roadmap/index.htm?iid=ipp_desk_proc+roadmap&

The State of Technology (00) ATI Press Headlines [on-line] Location http//mirror.ati.com/companyinfo/press/00/78545415.html

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Raising Education Standards

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Raising Education Standards

Holding the Government to account is just one of the jobs of Opposition, and it has become an interesting job. Credibility is a valuable political asset, hard to build and easily lost. But the more important task we face is that we have to build a vision for a better New Zealand, so people know they have a viable choice in 005.

National will campaign for one standard of citizenship, and to close the economic gap with Australia. Education is part of both stories - it provides the opportunity to give every child the start deserved by a New Zealand citizen, and an appropriately educated workforce is critical to higher rates of growth

In the next few weeks National will release a discussion document on education aimed at excellence in schools.

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I have watched our schools closely for over a decade - and Ive had children in our schools for the last 10 years.

I have been struck by how our schools are often slow in responding to the changing climate. These organisations should epitomise to our children a learning environment. Too often they have been dominated by complaining and resistance to change - two things we try to teach our children not to do.

But my real concerns focus on two corrosive problems I want to change.

The first is what has been called the soft bigotry of low expectations. A generation of politicians, bureaucrats, teachers and parents have been bombarded with statistics and philosophy that tell them some children cant succeed - that their social background, how and where they were born, and to whom, pre-determines how much they can learn and how much they can achieve.

Related to this is the second corrosive belief that the teacher cant make much difference, no matter how much training, or how much money goes into our schools.

The sum of these two beliefs is that we collectively believe some children will fail, from the start, and we tolerate it. The results of this attitude can be measured by international comparisons of New Zealand performance in literacy and numeracy.

The day I started school we were number one for literacy. Now we are 1th. Among English speaking countries in the developed world we rank second to bottom for literacy. For numeracy the picture is not much different.

More importantly, we have the largest disparity between our best performing children and our worst performing children in the developed world. Our best are among the best in the developed world, and our worst are in the third world. The top 0% of New Zealand children achieve brilliantly by any measure. Our average isnt too bad either. Its testament to an education system that works for children who know how to learn.

But the best reason for state funded schools is the democracy of the intellect, the capacity to open doors for every child. Its a right of citizenship for our children, and an obligation on every taxpayer, to make sure those doors are opened.

But we have failed.

The bottom 0% of New Zealand children have third world levels of literacy and numeracy. We owe them more, and we need more from them.

As the population ages there will be fewer young people, and to support growing standards of living, they need to be more productive, with higher not lower standards of literacy and numeracy.

The apathy has to go. These children deserve aspiration. Turning it around will need a common sense of purpose among teachers, government and parents. And it needs tools we havent had before.

The good news is there are some. A few months ago the Minister of Education published some remarkable research, carried out by Auckland University in South Auckland. Its the most startling education research I have read in 10 years. Its significance was largely missed by the media, but I suspect not the Government who laundered its politically incorrect conclusions.

The research is primarily about professional development of teachers, and literacy teaching. The report sets out to answer the questions - to what extent did professional development impact on teachers expectation of student achievement? And to what extent did it impact on a teachers ability to alter that achievement?

The report notes, and it is well documented, that teachers expectations make a difference to childrens achievement - but surprisingly little research has been done on how teachers expectations might be changed.

The report itself is written in education research code - but its conclusions are stark Childrens literacy can be measured Teachers can understand and use the measurements Teachers can learn how to change their teaching for children who are not progressing Testing works where schools believe the data and use it to change teaching practice. Successful literacy teaching depends on the expectations that all children can learn

This all sounds like common sense. Set goals, measure progress, adapt your methods, if progress isnt good enough.

Now this happens in some schools and not others. Each of these conclusions is controversial.

There are some formidable barriers to this common sense approach - let me give you a few quotes from this report.

It talks about constant reinforcement of low achievement by research that links failure (in schools and socio-economic status, failure and cultural difference). It is hard to believe that these children can possibly be successful after their teachers have been so thoroughly exposed to so much negative indoctrination.

A teacher puts it another way. We say that we believe that children can learn, but few of us really believe it.

The report also talks about teacher efficacy - the belief that teachers can make a difference. Many believe they cant. Its easy enough to see that if teachers are constantly told childrens learning is strongly affected by influences outside the classroom; they are likely to believe they cant make much difference inside the classroom. This will affect the way teachers set goals, and the lessons they learn from children reaching or not reaching those goals.

The report provides fascinating insights into how attitudes in the classroom can be changed. And attitudes were changed by the literacy project.

Before the project started teachers, like anyone else I suspect, gave these sorts of reasons for low literacy achievement. Lack of interest from parents A lack of oral language The children come to school with limited experiences

This is the official line - nothing much can be done - these children cant be expected to achieve.

However, after the literacy training, they were much more likely to see the school as an influence on literacy with reasons like Ive been given skills to use which I didnt really think I had before One teacher says that the assessments made her realise her pupils knew more about books than she realised. This from another teacher The contractor said that we had to work harder to make things easier for children. I resented that because I was working hard. Now I see what she means - what I do changes how the children learn.

The research study paints a picture of well-motivated teachers who respond positively when they are shown how they can make a difference.

The study then goes on to look at how this approach can be sustained. It looks at factors that sustain achievement in literacy in 7 schools over three years. The schools divided into three groups. Group three having the highest literacy achievement.

The study shows the differences in achievement were not related to the usual suspects - decile rating, childrens skills when they started school, or class size. Nor were they related to the teachers good intentions - all had good intentions.

Instead, different achievement levels among the children were related to emphasis the schools put on achievement. The schools showing better achievement followed a simple recipe. First, they used the data from tests as an objective measure of whether a child had sufficient levels of literacy. Second, teachers in the top achieving schools met regularly to discuss how to fix problems with specific children whose measured achievement fall short of expectations. They looked at the effectiveness of their teaching and worked out how to change it.

One of the biggest debates in education is about how to use measurements of achievement. The study shows that if teachers believe measurements are used to improve teachers effectiveness, and childrens achievement, they will use the data. As the study says, teachers need to be able to trust the system, so they believe that problems evident in the achievement data would lead to support in how to teach more effectively, not blame for failing to do it right. Its time to cut through the political correctness around testing. We owe it to our children to use the best tools we have to give them the best chance. A well-motivated teaching workforce will adopt these methods if they can see the objective is better achievement for the children.

However, we have a long way to go. We spend over $100 million on professional development of our teachers, but the report throws real doubt on the effectiveness of the spending. This is what the report has to say

In New Zealand, participatory rather than achievement requirements become institutionalised traditional measures of effective professional development - sometimes referred to happiness quotients and participating requirements, are insufficient to improve achievement.

This means we measure the success of support for teachers by whether it makes them happy. In fact we should measure support for teachers by whether it helps them increase achievement.

So there is a way to beat predictable failure. Measure literacy levels against national norms, analyse why some children fall short, and support teachers to find ways to improve the childrens achievement.

We can do this, one by one. Its common sense, and it wont cost much more. It wont need better computers, or experts, or revolution - just teachers helping teachers help children based on objective data. In the century of the knowledge economy, it cant be too much for our children to expect.

I expect the views in this research will be controversial when they are better understood. It shows that even in our decile one schools, our poorest schools, we can get children to normal levels of achievement in literacy. So it slays some sacred cows. It will certainly help shape Nationals education policy.

Shortly, National will release a major discussion paper on Education. The main priority it addresses is raising standards of literacy and numeracy. You will see many of the initiatives we want discussed have that as their goal, enabling our children to be the best that they can be.

There is far too much political correctness about failure in our schools. There are too many inspired teachers frustrated by the lack of tools to do as much as they can. Its time for honesty about how improvements can be made.

I believe every child has potential, and we believe in that potential sufficiently strongly that we must act, rather than just talk. This research, in our least likely schools, should give us all hope and that we can lift the nations children, one by one out of the third world to a first world future.

Schools should be able to raise the prospects of every child - that was the original vision of those who set up public education. Its an opportunity to better fulfil the promise of citizenship of New Zealand.

We will debate other aspects of citizenship - the role of the treaty, the place of ethnic definition, and what it means to say I am New Zealander. The purpose of that debate for me is to hand to our children the solutions of unity rather than the problems of division.

But first we can hand on to them the ability to learn and to understand, or it wont matter what other promises we make to them.

ENDS



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The Coles Website

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on The Coles Website. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality The Coles Website paper right on time.

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At the first glance of the website the most obvious e-commerce application is the web presence itself. This can also be referred to as the storefront in which is a BC application on the seller’s server. Although in the case of www.coles.com.au it also is a website that has information about the company as a whole. It servers the purpose of discovering and searching for products, evaluation of products and services and allow the customer to communicate with Coles. This web presence has many benefits as it allows Coles to reach an audience on a global scale and also gives existing customers an alternative of dealing with the company. Another advantage is access 4 hours, 7 days a week providing the server is always running.

There is also a link on the website to www.colesonline.com.au which is where customers can but products and have them delivered. The purpose of this part of the Coles’ e-commerce solution is for convenience as well as attracting customers who are unable to shop at the store for various reasons. The reason for its separate web presence is for the reason that it needs to be run differently as it needs security and also will run more efficiently because it is on a separate server. An important part of an online purchasing system is that customers need to trust the website. To do this Coles has various disclaimers and assurances.

Coles doesn’t only use e-commerce on the internet. The use of in-store banking and credit card use also falls under the e-commerce banner. Customers can pay for their goods in-store by using a credit card or EFTPOS system in which a cards balance is checked, and then debited usually at 500 PM that day. In another way to promote convenience and attract more customers, the website is also advertising a method of paying various bills in the store. This is another e-commerce service that Coles provides.

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While not located on the website, www.coles.com.au, Coles would need to order their goods from other suppliers. This would require and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system where they can order from suppliers immediately. Also an e-procurement system would be used for the buying of goods and services.



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friday night lights

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In his own backyard, Case lifts up a Newport cigarette until his mom rushed through the gate telling him to put it all down and enter the house. As Case faces his mom, all he can think about is his moms smoking habits and problems.

Drop that and get inside of the house now, yelled Cases mom, pointing her fingers at Case.

Im tired of you. I wish uncle Eddy was here, so I dont have to worry about everything, screamed Case, still holding the box of cigarettes.

Refusing to listen by reminding her about the past problems, Case runs the opposite way of his mom and his mom follows screaming in anger, hopeless and frustrated. Without looking back, Case jumps over the backyard fence, running across the driveway and onto the streets where he sees a car started up with the door open and no one in it. It was the neighbors car. Looking back as his mom curses him to leave, all Case can think about is leaving the block. So without looking at the neighbor on the steps, he runs into the car and drives three blocks down. Getting out of the car, Case runs down to the next block to sit and contemplate his life in the park, where he meets his best friend Shawn. Shawn greets Case as always with their own hand shake.

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Whats up with you Case? You look like a person that would be FBIs most wanted fugitive, looking at me with that face. said Shawn.

No, its my mom. I finally got away. Away from home, said Case, looking at Shawn in a worried way.

I know, I can tell and I cant believe it, but now your like me, said Shawn, reaching for the box of New Ports that Case holds.

Giving Shawn the box, Case couldnt believe that his life was at the same position Shawn was stationed in for the last three years. Shawn licks his fingers to remind Case the childhood days buying candy everyday in the nearest liquor store.

You still do that? asked Case

Got to remember how we was, responded Shawn. But all Case can think about is his family and how it would be if his dad was alive. Cases dad was a hustler. Case couldnt bare to think of him ever since he died when he was only 7.

You know my father is stupid. If he was--

Man, quit blaming your pops, you dont even know the damn fool.

After a week, Case and Shawn walks swiftly out their own apartment that they have started living in a few days before. Every day was a restless and reckless one, where Case and Shawn would rob cars for a well known bank robber nicknamed Clyde. Pockets were filled with money and ankles was strapped with money and knives incase of a night full of a big whirlwind. But on an early day, Case walks by himself to the liquor store to buy two pairs of cheap liquor for himself and Shawn. Tightening his fists as a truck passes by, Case notices an elderly teacher laughing with his students until he hears his name being called from Shawn and accidentally drops out of the 4 bottles he had purchased.

Are you serious? Im getting those bottles you have at your other hands then, said Shawn, laughing hard.

Take a look at that teacher. You know I always wanted to teach kids some stuff. said Case. Before Shawn questions him, Case says, Im serious. When I was a kid, I always wanted to be a teacher.

Claiming the two bottles left in Cases hands, Shawn walks towards Case and still Case responds with a question of changing his, as well as Shawns lifestyle, into teaching. Shawn laughs sarcastically then stops unexpectedly, looking fast with Case to a young teenage boy, seeing him cursing at his dad. With an imperious looking face, Case looks at Shawn and Shawn looks back tapping his shoulder to show him every thing will be all right. Being on their way to Clydes house, Case can think nothing else but to help little kids go through life.

Damn though. Every where I go, all I can see is my little cousin Curtis poppin up in my face, said Case.

He was just a wannabe thug. Its not like he was real, said Shawn, sipping on his liquor. You know if he ever learned anything, it would probably be about his mom.

Yeah. But its weird, because when I reached out like I did for him, he just ignored it, acting like I wasnt teaching him any thing, said Case

You know he couldnt see what you were saying. I mean face it, you still hustle, so how can he understand you. Im just saying you cant tell no one not to hustle when you hustle, said Shawn as Case looks down and picks up an old school brochure of his old elementary school.

Case said Yeah your right, I shouldnt--

Hold up. Be quiet, you know we have to watch out for Clyde to give us the signal, Responded Shawn. This block is a trip too. Wait. Is this Amstreet Blvd.?

Yeah homey! This is Amstreet Blvd., so we should be on our way to Clydes.

No, this is L Block, we got to--

I assure your broke ass, that this is Amstreet Blvd., said Case. Dont you remember that green house by the park? Thats how you know if this is Amstreet Blvd.

Oh my bad. They drive closer to Clydes house. and this should be Clydes pad, right? Case looks at Shawn in a weird way.

Yeah. Them cheap ass liquor got to you, huh? said Case laughing as Shawn looks closer to the road and says nothing to Case.

As Shawn was parking in Clydes driveway, Clyde himself hurrys out to tell Shawn that their has been a new Mercedes Benz parked downtown in the Holiday Hotel. Without saying a word, Shawn reverses his car out the driveway. Case stares across the street at some kids laughing with each other in his rearview mirror. Without saying a word on their way to the hotel, they spot the car parked near the place with a man leaning on it with no one around. Assuming its the owner of the car, Shawn looks for a surveillance camera and spots it on the left streetlight. Case hops out without speaking a word to Shawn and walks smoothly with a hat to the unknown stranger. After double parking by the Benz, Shawn hops out and breaks into the car. The man looks back in shock.

The man said Hey! What are you guys--

Slow your role and pay attention, said Case, coming from behind with his hand over the victims mouth. Slammed to the ground, the victim could feel Case tying his hands. Shawn goes off with the Benz and Case hops quickly in the car he and Shawn had come in and left with no trace, leaving the unknown man alone outside of the hotel parking lot. Assuming that Case will follow him back to Clydes house, Shawn looks in his rear view and finds that Case was not behind him.

Im about to bug out if I see another kid in my shoes, said Case driving the car to the nearest elementary school. Case whispers to himself as he sits in front of the school, on the steps. Damn, I got to get it together.

Can I help? Said a voice and Case looks up to find his old 4th grade teacher, Mrs. Deans.

Hey. Long time no see, said Case.

Yeah it has been a while huh? I can still remember that day you hit me when I told you to be quiet, remember? .

Yeah Those days, said Case, looking up to the moon. Mrs. Deans hugs Case and looks at him.

I can still recognize you. Even after all these years, you were always on my mind.

Im sorry about all of the dirt I threw around here. Its just that I couldnt help it. Hanging with the big boys, trying to be like my cousins. It just felt like I was born to get out of school. Like school was a big waste of time.

You know I was surprised when you left. I thought I can change you. Case looks at Mrs. Deans with wide open eyes. Yeah its true. And I still havent come across to meet a student that was once like you.

Wow, added Case looking back at the moon.

Is something bothering you?

Yeah. I cant seem to figure out what to make out of myself. Its like I have to do something I dont want to, to get respect. I want respect on the opposite side though. I mean I ran away from my mom. Hell, I cant teach her nothing but to get angrier, Said Case looking back at Mrs. Deans. I want to do something that you have tried to do to me.

You want to teach?

Yes. Mrs. Deans looks at Case in shock. But I dont want to let my boy Shawn down

Yes, Shawn. The boy who would always cover for you when you came late from the store.

You knew I went to the store?

I had to find out once in a while.

But Shawn? I cant leave him like I did to everyone. I just cant do that to better myself. I mean thats being greedy, right?

Case, every time I see you, Shawn was always their. When he didnt have lunch, you would share.

Or steal other peoples lunch, said Case, laughing with Mrs. Deans This is all just so hard for me though, calming down.

Yes thats true, but thats life, said Mrs. Deans. Case pulls out a cigarette from his pocket. You see! You need to quit this and start thinking. Just think, you can accomplish your goals better with out these distractions. Express them the best way you can.

That dont make no sense! How am I supposed act when I cant think. Teaching is the problem! So tell me how to express through that!, screamed Case.

First get rid of that smell. Case puts the cigarette down. Now let me tell you that I know it hurts when you reminisce. And I know you feel pain all over after these distractions that got a hold of you. Go to Shawn and tell him what you feel.

What if he doesnt like the idea?

Than hell be the greedy one.

Man. All this is confusing me. All I can do is think. Can I talk to you tomorrow?

Yes, you know as well as I do that you can always turn to me.

Thanks, Mrs. Dean.

Laughing about the issue, Case stands up and shakes Mrs. Deans hands good bye walking his way to Shawns car ready to go to the apartment. Case waits for a while in his car and before he can start the car, Mrs. Dean double parks by him and gives him a beaded necklace.

Case said, Hold up, whats the--

Its a necklace that stands for power and respect. Youll know, said Mrs. Deans, driving off down the road.

Driving home with questions filling up his mind, Case realizes he made the necklace himself back in the 4th grade for his Dad. While he looks up to the full moon, Case looks at the necklace he once made for his father.

Know wonder I didnt remembered this. said Case driving faster. As he reached the apartment, Shawn was already sitting in front of their apartment door. Looking up, Shawn screamed furiously to Case.

Whats wrong with you huh? Im on my way to Clydes and already you taking credit?

I was just getting some things off my chest. Laughing sarcastically, Case explained the meaning of expressing.

Expressing. I was expressing myself. Shawn looks at Case like he had just seen a ghost at the moment.

Expressing? You couldve came and have a drink with the boy.

No.

No? What do you mean no?

I dont do that no more, said Case looking down to the stained rug. Shawn just look and grabbed his alcohol and lends it out to Case.

Here. Case looks at it with a craving of drinking it, but he smacks it down.

No! Shawn just looks at Case the same way he did before. After a few seconds he grabs a box of cigarettes and lends it out.

I aint playin no more! Case snatches the box of cigarettes and pulls one out. Putting it to his mouth he looks at Shawn. Spark this cuz. Shawn pulls out a lighter and tries to light it. No, let me light it. Shawn gives him the lighter in shock, bulging his eyes. Case flicks the lighter and takes the cigarette out of his mouth and lights it. Here, you smoke, because I dont want to feel like this later on tomorrow.

What in gods world are you trying to say? You make this damn city feelin like the twilight zone. said Shawn and by the end of the night, all Shawn and Case could do was laugh. The next morning came with the air pushing its way through life and Shawn and Case is out around the corner with Clydes friends. Case explains his plans to the hustlers about working at the elementary school to and they all laugh continuously. Shawn was happy for Case, because he had never seen him so happy to do something hat can help the community. Later, every body looks in grief as a police car passes, driving towards Clydes house. Shawn sees a police officer arresting Clyde and officers walk towards them to stop where they are until Clyde screamed out in anger.

All yall are coming with me. They got the cars and the codes with yall, said Clyde as police officer slaps Clyde on the head. Man! Read me my rights you--

Shut Up!, Screamed the officer holding on his strapped nightstick.

When everybody found out that each of them was going with him to prison, everybody fled as Case and Shawn ran there own way until they were attacked by police officers. Their was more trouble for Case than their was for Shawn, because Case had two strikes already in the past year. Lieutenant Wilson looked at Case with a smile.

Your going to be in for a long time for being part of Clydes faction, said Lieutenant Wilson, holding on his hat.

As Case was being handcuffed, Shawn released after lying to the questions a detective was asking. Another reason why Shawn was released early was because he had no record with the department nor did he have one in Clydes faction.

There goes my life, said Case in grief, looking straight ahead at the elementary school near by. As Case was being led to the back seat of the police car, Shawn came and took the blame for Case after thinking about Case and the lives he will touch in the future.

Mr. Police officer! Im the one you need, not him, said Shawn looking at the eyes of the police officer. He never was in contact with Clyde since the last time he was released from Juvey. The police officer looks slowly to Case and back fast to Shawn.

You have the right to remain silence. said the police officer, reading Shawns rights as another officer takes the handcuffs off of Case. Shawn stayed calm for two weeks where he had saved up enough money to bail out Case and Case was scheduled for an interview that the next day, because Shawn scheduled it. Shawns lips would curve upward every time Case would explain how he would teach as if he was going to preach, or how he said he was going to talk as if he walked. That very night, Shawn had a dream about a never ending block. In it, he found his father flowing down in a stream of liquor and his mom abandoning him, leaving him to his childhood friends he soon broke the law with. Laughing with his friends, he can see each of them disappear before his eyes except for Case. Reaching out, Case turns around to little kids and soon Shawn keeps walking down the road with no one to look to and this is when Shawn opens his blurry eyes to his life. Getting off his bed, he sees Case go into the bathroom to brush his teeth. Shawn joins him picking up his toothbrush.

Whats up Case. I had this spooky dream. Every thing was wack and it all felt like I was getting low with the 11, said Shawn laughing with Case. I mean it took me back where every body was leaving me. Case stops brushing his teeth and looks at Shawn brushing his teeth.

What do you mean? asked Case

Im talkin about this interview you getting ready for. We still goin to be boys right?

Of course, just come around the corner. Case looks and agues of the idea continuously to Shawn. The idea of that is crazy. said Case as Shawn argues back. Reaching to his back, Shawn pulls out a gun and points it to Case.

Now you callin me crazy? Case looks at Shawn smoothly. Because I am crazy. My whole life is crazy. If you want to trip about that--

Im not tripping on you! Im saying--

No! Case continues to argue. No! No! You shut your ass up! Case stops talking. Im crazy. You crazy. This is crazy right? Without moving an inch of his body for a second, Case screams back.

What are you going to do with that? Your not goin to--

How do you know that? You might be a different person after today. Hell you already a different person. Movin out your mammas house tryin to make ends meat. Being independent. Shawn pauses for a minute and the all they can hear is the noise that the neighbors are making. Shawn looks at Cases face and could see that he still had the tattoo he himself tatted a few years back. You still got them tattoo tears huh? Case feels his tattoo, then looking back at Case not saying a word. Being dared to un click the safety, Shawn does so and Case looks directly into Shawns eyes. As Shawn looks away, he pulls the trigger in shock and couldnt understand what he had done. Case! Still looking at Shawns eyes, Case falls to his knees and looks at the gun and then to himself.

How you goin to shoot and not hit me? said Case laughing with Shawn. Knowing that he wasnt shot, Case touches Shawns tattoo tears above his cheeks. God knows why you cant cry now huh? Every things going to be cool, just play it cool and well both endure in this game, said Case, tapping Shawns shoulder to let him know every thing will be all right.

Almost late, Case reaches his interview on time and came out. Shawn whispers to himself.

What in the world am I getting myself into. No. I- I hope this boy gets his job. Hell hes being interviewed by Mrs. Deans. A half an hour later smiling, Case pulls out 40 dollars from his pocket and speaks of celebration to Shawn, knowing that hes gonna have the job.

How did you get it? asked Shawn.

Since Ms. Deans is the principle, she cut me some slacks on my records. said Case. Im gonna come on Saturday, so she can kind of train me. You know. Case looks at Shawn and sees Shawn looking at him as if he was hiding something. Whats up with you though?

No, dont worry about me. You the teacher now big boy. Walking outside, Shawn stops before Case looking at a newspaper issue and shows Case that Clyde was out of jail as it says so on the front page of the article Bank robber released on 50,000 bail. Sounds of a car burning rubber swerving off the corner of a street, Shawn and Case looks suspiciously in shock and sees a car speeding up. As it speeds closer, Case realized that it was was a man with a green sticker on the hood which represents Clydes faction. Shawn and Case looks at each other than they both run behind the nearest car and ducks down, as a gun fire at the men speeding to the next block. Case caught a bullet to the head and Shawn was shot on the arm. Shawn notices the blood flowing out the body fast, so he pulled our his cell phone and calls the hospital in fear. All Shawn could do was look at Case.

Listen my man, I got the Ambolan comin to get you. Dont worry, you gon get it right up in there. Mrs. Deans runs out and is in shock when she sees Case decapitated.

Is he okay? I mean will he be be all right, said Mrs. Deans, taking off her glasses to wipe the tears from it.

I dont know, I could just hope replied Shawn

Well. What happened?

Weve been hit by a drive by, said Shawn as he grips tight on his wound. Mrs. Dean sees the wound is in shock.

Are you going to be okay?

Yeah, its just a scratch. Mrs. Deans looks at Shawn and looks at him worried. The ambulance came with police cars following. Shawn cant bare to stop looking at Case on the ground. As Case is carried to the ambulance, Shawn looks past the body and was going to go with Case into the Ambulance but was stopped.

Im sorry, but we need to ask--

Can I go with my boy first? I mean damn!. Shawn looks quickly at the paramedics closing the ambulance door with Case lying in it. Look! They gonna leave!

As one police officer questioned another at the side of the ambulance told Shawn, We need to know if--

Look! Shawn showed his hand covering the bullet wound. I have to go!

Fine, well be over there-- The police officer stopped explaining as Shawn chased the ambulance driving off. Soon enough, Shawn answered the questions he was asked by the police department after he was treated for two days at the community hospital, but Case has been in a coma until he had regained conscience on the 5th day. Doctors check in with Case every no and then, but so far Case didnt need help, because with Shawn by his side ever since the tragedy, he felt like he can survive talking to Shawn, wishing they could get out.

Doctor Phillips, Cases Doctor, told Shawn I know so, that Case can survive this.

I know so too, said Shawn looking at Doctor Phillips smile back as he walks out the room. Shawn looks back at Case.

You are going to be just okay to go. said Shawn. Case looks up at the ceiling. Gripping his a pillow near by with his fist he looks harder at the ceiling, like he was in a staring contest. His veins were sticking out and his lips were held tight together. Dont worry man, Ill get them back! Case didnt say anything but calmed down. As he looks out the window, he can remember himself teaching his young cousin cursing him out as the wind blows harder on him. Do you want the window closed?

No. Im cool Case looks back at Shawn then back out the window, where he can he kids laughing. Smiling, he looked back at Shawn. Shawn smiles and laughs.

Why you looking at me like that?

I aint gay, said Case laughing with Shawn. But I could just wonder.

What?

I saw that green bumper sticker on that hit mans car. You know, the same sticker you have on your bumper.

Oh. Man, that probably was one of Clydes men.

How do you figure that?

Because Clyde always told me to represent the click. I never knew that you didnt know what that sticker stand for.

I thought the dealership applied it to you or something. said Case as Shawn looks at him in an disturbing way.

Now you know that you dont know nothing about no dealership. And you damn well dont know much about the car, because I repainted it and a changed the plate after I did, laughed Shawn to Case.

Yeah, I know, responded Case, laughing with Shawn. For a minute that day I thought I was--

No you didnt. I made sure you didnt--

But face it I--

No you was on that--

Man stop it, laughed Case, shaking Shawns hand as Shawn laughed with him. A week has passed so far and Shawn has been stabbed in the arm in an attempt to be murdered by Clydes men in nights where he would leave the hospital for food. The next night, Case and Shawn was good to leave, so the first thing Case did was that he called the School if he was still good to work there. He dialed the number to the main office and to his surprise, Mrs. Deans picked up.

Hello? said Mrs. Deans

Hey Mrs. Deans. Its me Case.

Oh my god. Your Okay, said Mrs. Deans in shock.

Yeah. Im in the flesh. I wanna know if I can still--

Im afraid you have been in the hospital too long and I dont know--

Please! I got your flowers and balloons that made me get better and now I am. I promise you that I wont be apart of any criminal acts and crimes because I left that behind me already. Im in for change

I dont know. You can influence kids or even get them hurt in any situation. Case looks at Shawn confused and talks back into the telephone. Ill talk to you later than.

But What I mean is-- Mrs. Deans stops talkin as she hears the phone connection between her and Case cut off. The next morning, the sun was beginning to rise and Case had already told Shawn he would go to the store that morning to meet up with the boys, so Shawn wasnt surprised when he woke up to find himself alone at home that morning. After brushing his teeth, Shawn grabbed a soda from the refrigerator and sit himself down to drink and thought about what to do about himself. In the first time since he started with Clydes business, Reaching inside his pocket, he found that he didnt have any money. With sweat pouring from his face, he realizes that the only way he had money was through crime. With out saying a word, he looked out the window to find a group of kids walking from school. It was Nine oclock, so Shawn knew they were skipping class. All Shawn could do was whisper to himself.

What am I supposed to do? No job. Hell, I aint even got a to 5. Someone knocks on the door and Shawn gets up to answer it. Without checking who the person was, Shawn opens the door to find no one knocking on it. Suddenly, Shawn has the urge to slam the door. Quickly, Shawn runs into the room to grab his gun and crawls back into the living room fast as the U.S. Army. Looking into the kitchen to see if anyone was coming from the back door, Shawn crawls to the kitchen until the front door exploded. Damn pipes, whispers Shawn behind the living room in the kitchen. Shawn could here someone come, so he makes his way for the back door until he is caught by a man. A few hours later, Case comes in surprise when he sees the front of the room destroyed.

What in the world? Hey yo Shawn! You here? with no luck of finding Shawn anywhere, Case runs outside to drive his car to Amstreet Blvd. On his way over there, he can find that not that many cars were parked around the street. Clyde better watch his ass. Parking a block away, Case walks out of his car and walks suspiciously to Clydes house. Since now he was closer to his drive way, Case ducked down behind the cars that were parked. Crawling, knowing theirs someone watching out the window, Case goes and hops the fence to his backyard without the man looking out the window to catch him. Walking like a smooth criminal he knew that he knew the house well. Case soon finds the bathroom window and he can think back where he always had to climb through the window if Clyde was sleeping. But in the living room, Shawn was sitting on the couch with 5 men guarding him from the back and he was talking to Clyde.

Shawn will be here right? said Clyde

I know hes going to come for me. replied Shawn. With no one saying anything, of the five men raises a cigarette to Shawns cheek and each of the two men stung the tattoo that was on his cheek. Mean while, Case picked up his gun from his sock and looked through a hole where he can see three out of the five men in the hall way.

Hey Jon, can you see Case anywhere yet? asked Clyde

No, said Jon as he looks out the window. Case knew Jon was in front of the door. As a minute passes, the men guarding continue to sting Shawns face once more on the same area.

Hey Joe, I need to go take a leak. Wont you come and take this state, said Jon as he gets up to go to the bathroom. As Joe passes the bathroom door, Case could see that Jon was coming, so Case went to go hide in the shower. As Jon closes the door and walks in the bathroom with out looking, he turns on the sink to clean his face and Case walks out the shower. With Jons face down, Case walked out and as Jons face came up, his mouth and nose was covered by a cloth of alcohol and Jon past out. Case turned off the sink and grabs Jons gun. As the hot water was still running, Case looked through the hole.

Jon has been in the bathroom for days. Go check on Jon, Okay Joe, said Clyde and as Joe walked over inside of the bathroom, he was unarmed, with his gun behind him. As he entered the bathroom, Case had already had his hands over his face with the clothe of alcohol. Clyde and the other men couldnt hear the man choking because the water running. Case could see three men securing the hallway. Case picks up his gun and fires at the three men in the head.

Whats up Clyde! screamed Case and he raised a gun on to Clydes head and fired. Without looking at Clyde, Shawn ran with Case out the front door. Gun shots were firing their way, and Shawn and Case ran to the next block to find their car.

I thought you were goin to bail on me, laughed Shawn

No though, you know Ill be there. Thats messed up though, said Case with a smile turning the steering wheel to the left.

What?

Your not a criminal no more.

And how do you figure that?

You can cry now. Case points at the bloody patches of scars on Shawns face, where the tattoo tears Case once tatted, was lying at.

Yeah. You still aint right, said Shawn laughing until he holds the cigarette scars

on his face.

Damn though. Dont laugh. You can--

Go to the hospital to check on this. After the going to the hospital, Shawn and Case checked out and Shawn now had a big patch on his cheek.

You look like Tyson after he got his tattoo, laughed Case

Man shut up. What time is it?

Its around 50, replied Case still laughing at Shawn.

Are you serious? Knowing that it was still early, Shawn decided to go to Jack In The Box, than go to the park and eat over there. Sitting in the park questioning each other as the kids in the playground play, Shawn talked with his mouth full of fries to Case.

Hey Case, said Shawn

What? Case replied holding his burger, with a starving look on his face.

We here baby. Now you can do that teaching thing Case smiles ready to respond, until he looks past the monkey bars to find his little cousin Curtis sitting at the end of the slide. Aint you gonna eat that?

Quit playin, said Case. Shawn looked confused and was about to question. Look over at the slide. Shawn looks in shock. Now is that Curtiss young ass or am I trippin off these burgers?

No. You right. Thats him. As Case and Shawn looks, Curtis looks around and finds Case staring at him.

He Cuz! screamed Curtis, walking his way to Shawn and Case. Whats up, I havent seen yall in a while. Curtis lends out his hand for a handshake pound, until Case looks down at him. What?

What you doing here? You know your mamma is worried sick about your 11 year old wannabe a g doin shit ASS! screamed Case

Why you trippin for? Said Curtis, looking at Case as if he was going to fight him. I heard you ran away from yo mamma, right?

She never raised me.

Mine never even feed me.

Thats because yall broke! Curtis looks down. I split because I had to. I worked--

Yeah you hustled because you had to. Dont--

You know, I aint gonna disagree with you on that. But I made a mistake. You can make that mistake right now.

You know how much money I can make? Curtis laughs and puts a smirk on his face and leaves. Case looks at Shawn and all Shawn can do was nod his head and laugh.

Look. You cant do any thing about it.

Yeah. Shawn tapped Cases back to let him know every thing was going to be all right. Man, forget that. You got some teaching things to talk about.

And thats my teaching right there. I couldnt even outsmart this fool. said Case with his burger dropped on to the bench he was sitting on. I cant even eat my favorite meal. Shawn looks at the meal.

Here, Ill eat it.

Man, Hell naw! I dont know if I can do this anymore.

Dont listen to that fool. He too young. Hell learn.

If he be careful with his mouth. Someone is bound to bust his upper lip to match the size of his bottom one. What do I do if I cant think of some thing to say. You know, to inspire somebody.

Itll come. Dont worry about it. You learn as you go, so let it come.

Yeah you right. Come on lets go home.

Hold up, are you going to--

Hell yeah Im eating this, said Case, holding the bag full of two meals he ordered.

The morning after, Shawn turns on the news to find their were six men murdered on Amstreet Blvd. Shawn goes to the kitchen and laughs as he looks at the news paper to find a job. While Shawn looks for his next job, Case is already substituting for a teacher who called sick that morning. As Case gets ready for the upcoming year, he looks at each individual and talks to them as if they were his little brothers and sisters.

Hello Class! Said Case.

The Class responded back, Hi Mr. Freeman! A student raises his hand and Case offers him to speak his mind.

You look like a gangster, said the boy as the rest of the class laughed. Case laughs and walks his way to the little kid with a big smile.

And why do you think that?

Because your tattoo, said the little kid as every one laughs again. Case feels his tattoo tears on his face and looks back at the student.

Oh. This tattoo. Do you like tattoos

Yeah

I do too. Thats why I got one.

Doesnt it hurt?

Yeah. Thats why you have to get it when you grow up. The rest of the class stares at Mr. Freeman and Mr. Freeman continues the day with math. Looking out the Window he saw kids walking home so Case changed the subject and said, Wait. Dont open your books. Look outside at those kids. Theyre skipping class. Everybody looks outside and screams. A girl raised her hand. Why do they do that?

Because they want to be cool. Are you guys cool? asked Case

Yeah! the class responded.

Than you dont have to do that. Case points at the kids. Yall understand?

Yeah, the class screams out. Case opens up the window and yells out to the kids.

You guys better come back, before I call the principle! The kids hurry to the school and the kids inside of the classroom screamed with Mr. Freeman.

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Augusta Golf

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The Augusta Golf and Country club has been one the most beloved and chariest golf courses in the United State. It holds probably the most prestigious golf tournaments in the world, the Masters. But Augusta now is facing a situation that it never wanted to have to face. Augusta does not have any female members and the reason is because they do not allow any females to join the club. Now women are speaking out, they demand Augusta drop their all male policy. But many members of the club like it the way it is, and do not see the need to change the policy of this club.

The best resolution to this situation would be to allow one or two female member into the club. They will have to spend funds on women’s locker rooms and such so that they are equal to the men. The way the U.S is going, women and men are becoming more and more equal in society. So it would be in the best interest of the club to allow women now.

Making a wise choice should reconfigure the situation, so that it reduces impositions on the people involved so as to provide them with the opportunities and stimulate their aspirations. Allowing a women member into Augusta is a wise decision because it will provide women with the opportunity to shine in golf. This will also inspire women, who do not play the game, to take up golf. This also will provide the male member with the opportunity to meet and interact with females. By doing this, the males will learn to respect and appreciate the opposite sex more.

Being compassionate is being sensitive and responsive to the suffering of others. Augusta showed they were being compassionate toward all women by allowing a women member into the club. Augusta is a very wealthy club, and they could have gone on fine without any women members. Also many members might feel uncomfortable around a women member, but they choose to help these women who are suffering from discrimination even though they do not have to.

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By allowing female members into Augusta, this promotes a good life and maintains integrity for all. In this generation, gender should not matter. Males should look at females as equals and not just women. So by allow females into the club, the men will learn to accept the females and not treat them like second-class citizens. This will lead to less discrimination towards all women. Integrity is easily maintain by this, because no one is harmed or put at a disadvantage. Both males and females will benefit from appreciating and learning from the opposite sex.





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exercise

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on exercise. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality exercise paper right on time.

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What is exercise? The actual definition of exercise is; to use repeatedly in order to strengthen or develop, but to make it simpler, exercise is doing programs and workouts to keep fit, for example, running, hiking, bicycling, and any active sport.

Most Americans do little or no exercise during work or rest hours. Today there aren’t many jobs requiring intense physical activity. Instead of walking, people use automobiles or public transportation. Instead of being physically active, people usually watch TV in their free time. Some sports such as bowling, golf, and tennis (doubles) provide some exercise, but do not provide as much exercise as other more vigorous sports.

Exercise is very important and is beneficial both physically and mentally. When you exercise, you feel better about yourself because you are fit or your getting fit and you feel that you have accomplished something that was hard to strive for. The benefits of physical activity is it gives you more energy, it helps you in coping with stress, it improves self-image, and it increases resistance of tiredness.

Exercise does not only keep you fit, it also reduces your chance of heart attack. Various studies have shown that the chance of heart attack is two times more likely to happen to an inactive person than a more active person. It really all adds up because with exercising, you burn off calories, which keeps you at your desirable weight, which lowers your risk of heart disease.

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There are risks in exercising though. The major risk in exercising is injury to the muscle or joints. This happens when a person exercises too hard for too long, this mostly happens to people that have been inactive for a while.

In some situations, people have died while exercising. In these situations, most of the deaths have been by overexertion in people who have had heart problems. For people who are under the age of thirty, these heart conditions are usually from heart defect present at birth. For the people that are over the age of 40, the heart condition is usually coronary artery, which is the buildup of deposits of fats in the hearts blood vessels. A lot of these deaths have followed by warning signs such as chest pain, lightheartedness, fainting, and extreme breathlessness. These are symptoms that should not be ignored and medical attention should be advised immediately.

Exercising too hard is not good for anyone, however, and is especially dangerous for out-of-shape, middle-aged and older people. It is very important for all people to follow a gradual and sound exercise program.

If you are wondering how long it would take to be in shape, think about this; look at how long you have been out of shape and it will take about that much time to get back in shape if you exercise properly.

With some of this information earlier stated, exercise seems pretty dangerous, but it’s not very dangerous at all, you just need to be careful. No research studies have shown that physically active people are more likely to have sudden, fatal heart attacks than inactive people. A matter of fact, several studies have shown a reduced risk of sudden death for people who are physically active.



Please note that this sample paper on exercise is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on exercise, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on exercise will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Photochemical Smog

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Photochemical smog is a type of air pollution produced when sunlight acts upon waste gases such as from motor vehicle exhausts or power plants to form harmful substances such as ozone (O), aldehydes and peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). Ozone causes breathing difficulties, headaches, fatigue and can trigger respiratory problems. The peroxyacetylnitrate in photochemical smog can irritate the eyes, causing them to water and sting. In some cases it has also been seen as fatal. It is considered to consist of two things Primary and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants are when pollutants are released straight into the atmosphere, be it from factories, buses or power stations. It is then seen as a secondary pollutant if that primary pollutant is subject to another reaction. The everyday use of a car provides both primary and secondary pollutants. The following are a list of just what is released.

At the high temperatures of the cars cylinder, nitrogen and oxygen from the air react to form nitric oxide (NO)

N(g) + O(g) ----- NO(g)

Some of the nitric oxide (NO) reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO)

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NO(g) + O(g) ----- NO(g)

The mixture of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO) is sometimes referred to as NOx.

This is how NOx is formed within a car. However, NOx and SOx are also formed during processes in a coal fired power station. They make up the majority of coal-fired power stations outputs, along with waste heat and carbon dioxide. The waste heat is to be expected, as is the carbon dioxide. The NOx is formed as the coal is burnt. This is due to the organisms present in the sulphur, which is found within the coal. As it is burnt, the sulphur compounds are converted into oxides, or SOx. The NOx content, which is produced, can come from one of two different ways. This could be firstly that the fuel compounds that are burnt contain nitrogen. Nitrogen is formed from the proteins that are contained in organisms, and so when the fuel is burnt the compounds (like the SOx) are oxidised which makes NOx. Another way that this can happen is due to the high temperatures that are a result of combustion; nitrogen and oxygen combine to form thermal NOx.

The problem with this is that the stations are producing too much of these pollutants. There are concerns with how the waste should be minimised, which is also known as choosing the best practical environmental option, or BPEO. Because of this, ways are needed to cut down the emissions of both the N and the S.

There are however many ways to keep in line with the BPEO and reduce this waste. For S, reacting sulphur dioxide in the fumes released with limestone, which will form calcium carbonate (CaSO4). This process can be shown in the following equasion

CaCO(s) + SO(g) + HO(l)

/

(CaSO).HO(s) + CO(g)



(CaSO).HO(s) + O + HO

/

(CaSO4).H)(s)

Another way of conforming to the BPEO is to simply dissolve the SOx in seawater and is aerated which helps to lower the severity of the sulphates. They can then be released into the sea, as the main sulphates are no longer excessively harmful. Also, the concentration in the sea is hardly noticeable.

There is also two ways in which the N emissions can be lowered. Heat levels play a key part in the first. The boilers had always been designed to release the maximum amount of heat possible. This enabled nitrogen molecules very susceptible to reacting with the oxygen molecules within the boiler. If the heat of the boiler is lowered, it makes the molecules less vulnerable to reaction. The other way is gas reburn. This is when the flue gas is recycled in order to lower NOx levels by reducing the levels of O that are in the furnace. A large part of the NOx formed is chemically removed by heating in colder parts of the furnace, as showed in the diagram below.





Please note that this sample paper on Photochemical Smog is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Photochemical Smog, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Photochemical Smog will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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