Favoritism in the Workplace

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Favoritism in the Workplace

Favoritism in the workplace constitutes unequal treatment of employees. Is it the responsibility of the boss to be impartial, to be fair (Frost, 18)? Websters dictionary defines favor as friendly regard; approval or partiality. Favoritism is defined as partiality; bias. Therefore, we see that the essence of favoritism is partiality on the part of the boss. The boss may show his favor toward one employee over another, either openly or discreetly. The supervisor may show favor in any number of ways. He may give to the worker gifts like pens, or calendars, or tickets to events. Moreover, the supervisor may show favor in a more personal manner by socializing with the worker on any number of levels, from talking or joking with the worker while at work, to eating lunch with the worker, to inviting the worker and their family over for dinner, or on vacation. All of these actions, as well as many more subtle actions may show favor on the part of the boss toward the worker. Conversely, favoritism is unfair and an inappropriate use of power. In a perfect world, pay raises, promotions, hiring, and the application of rules would be merit based. An employee who has excelled in his field would be able to move up the ladder of success. The supervisor’s brother-in-law, the employee with the tight sweater, or the ambitious woman who is sleeping her way to the top, would not bypass him or her. Displays of favoritism, or even its perception, can destroy relationships, initiative, and trust (OEC, 00). It is important that each of us have a relationship with our supervisor or manager that is built on trust, candor, and fairness. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. Some supervisors have compromised their authority and the respect they could command by allowing favoritism, real or perceived.

Ethical Dilemma

Unprofessional relationships between supervisor and employee promote unequal treatment. The danger of abuse of authority and the perception of favoritism is always present. The ability of a supervisor or manager to influence (directly or indirectly), assignments, promotions, training opportunities, awards, and other employment opportunities places both the supervisor or manager and the subordinate in a vulnerable position (SAF, 18). Supervisors and managers are in leadership positions, which require the maturity and judgment to avoid relationships that impede the efficiency of the service or adversely affect performance.

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Two-thirds of us believe office romances wreak havoc on the morale of coworkers (Rossheim, 001). At the same time, two-thirds of us grow indignant when employers attempt to regulate their employees intimate relationships. Rosemary Agonito, a Syracuse, New York, consultant and author of Dirty Little Secrets Sex in the Workplace believes that companies should go further in codifying guidance to employees. I think its a mistake to have no policy at all, she says. When dealing with liaisons between peers, employers must strike a balance. Forbidding these relationships just drives them underground, says Agonito. But employers can require disclosure of relationships. Such a disclosure might lead to the transfer of one of the employees involved in a boss-subordinate relationship, or to the signing of a dating waiver”, in which both employees agree theyve entered the relationship willingly.

Numerous situations play out favoritism. The type of business, the number of employees, or the number of supervisors can change the severity of an action. Favoritism can be blatant or subtle. Do you have people in your office that dislike each other (Smith, 00)? Do they cause problems for everyone else? Conflict in the workplace is a painful reality. The goal is to recognize friction and tension and deal with it before it escalates into a major problem. One point is clear--conflict does not magically go away if ignored. Certain types of conflict in the workplace, such as sexual harassment and discrimination, are obvious and readily identified. Other forms of conflict are not. Small, irritating events that occur repeatedly over time may cause one individual to strike out at another. Managers who exhibit favoritism toward one or more employees set themselves up for problems with the “non-favored”. Employees who find ways to appear busy while doing nothing can easily create dissatisfaction among the rest of the department. Conflict may develop when an employee, because he or she did not fully understand the job responsibilities, receives an unsatisfactory job evaluation.

Often, there is a difference of opinion depending on the vantage point. If you get a promotion ahead of her, it is favoritism. If she gets a job ahead of you, it is equal opportunity. If you make a decision without consulting her, you are a chauvinist. If she makes a decision without consulting you, she is a liberated woman. Consequently, before taking any action against a supervisor, discuss the situation with people outside the problem.

Nepotism and favoritism are unethical business practices. Although, it is natural for a supervisor or manager to trust, respect, and depend upon one employee more than another -- a result of experience, common interests, goals, or backgrounds, or simply the longevity of their successful relationship. However, each of us should work to create an environment where people are valued as individuals and treated with respect and dignity, fairness and equality. That leaves no room for displays of favoritism. Favoritism is insidious. It creeps into the workplace and shows itself when we least expect it. It destroys relationships and trusts. It feeds on our initiative. It lives in the shadows. We must always be alert to its presence and suppress it.

Analyze the Problem

The U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board gave a survey about problems in the workplace (Erdreich et al, 18). While most employees believe that their agencies are upholding the values embodied in the merit principles, substantial numbers see their agencies as failing in this mission. Some of the most serious problems were in the areas of dealing with performance problems, ensuring that promotions are merit-based and made only after fair and open competition, and keeping personal favoritism out of personnel management. A large minority said that there is a major problem in their agencies in the area of favoritism. Well over a third (8%) felt that their agencies do a poor job protecting employees against personal favoritism. These findings paint a disturbing picture about employees’ perceptions concerning the health of the merit system.

Almost one-third (0%) of the respondents believed that their agencies fail to uphold the merit principles when promoting people, basing promotions on something other than candidates’ relative ability, knowledge, and skills. The same proportion (%) saw the same degree of failure with their agencies’ efforts to ensure fair and open competition before they give a promotion. Nearly half of the people who responded to the survey said that their agencies have a major problem correcting poor performance, and firing poor performers. Since so many people that responded to the survey believe violations of the merit system exist, the perceptions result in cynicism, discouragement, and ultimately; a loss in productivity. Twenty-five percent of the respondents said that there were unfairly denied a job or promotion because of the “buddy system” without regard to merit.

The perception by percent of the respondents felt there was a problem when it came to fair and equitable treatment without regard to political affiliation, race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or handicapping condition. That report suggested that some employees are subject to disadvantages unrelated to merit�based factors, especially in those personnel management decisions in which subjective judgment plays a major role.

Sexual harassment is another form of favoritism. It includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when submission to advances is a condition of a persons continuing status, or when submission to or rejection of the conduct is used as the basis for a decision affecting the person (UOD, 001). Sexual harassment also exists when such conduct has the purpose or effect of interfering with a persons work or academic performance, or of creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment.

How does your company deal with whistleblowers? When you come across blatant injustice, but nobody listens to what you have to say, there is sometimes only one thing to do (Gearing, 000). Nowadays, though, more and more ordinary citizens are stepping forward, putting their reputations, their jobs, and even their families lives on the line to make a noise about situations they find unacceptable. Not all whistleblowers are untainted, of course. Some may be exacting revenge, or stirring up trouble for troubles sake. On the other hand, many have justice on their side. Either way, whistleblowers take a chance because they are often the victims of retaliation.

Determine if perhaps you are actually part of the problem. This may be difficult for some of us to admit. Maybe you are contributing to the breakdown in the relationship. Be honest with yourself. Ask your co-workers how they see it. Do not just ask your friends who might be too ready to agree with you, but ask others whom you trust to give you an honest opinion.

Finally, decide if the problem is fixable, and/or if it has caused permanent damage between you and your manager or supervisor. Sometimes it takes the form of a failure to receive an expected or promised promotion or raise. It can take on many forms, but the central message and perception is that the boss just does not like you. This might cause you to feel trapped, not being able to move up, or even having someone to talk with about it. Stress will grow and fester until you get these feelings out and deal with them.

Determine possible Courses of Action

Appropriate and inappropriate behavior should be clear, and effective accountability structures installed. Differences of opinion are a fact, so a meeting is necessary in which the affected parties can work out their grievances. Each optional course of action will have consequences that affect each of the stakeholders. The goal is to find the solution that is fair and just, a resolution that will treat like situated employees in like fashion (fairness), and a resolution that does not trammel the rights and expectations of each of the other stakeholders (justice) (Dubinsky, 00)

Wherever choices exist there is potential for disagreement (Billikopf. 1). Such differences, when handled properly, can result in richer, more effective, creative solutions. However, it is difficult to turn differences into opportunities, consistently. We need to deal with disagreement properly; otherwise, the outcome can be contention. Contention creates a sense of psychological distance between people, such as feelings of dislike, alienation, and disregard.

When faced with challenges, we tend to review possible alternatives and come up with the best solution given the data at hand. We discard unwanted options. While some decisions may take careful consideration, analysis, and even agony, we solve others almost instinctively. Our best solution becomes our position or stance in the matter. Our needs, concerns and fears all play a part in coming up with such a position. Misunderstanding and dissent grow their ugly heads when our solution is not the same as theirs.

Several foes often combine to create contention

o Our first enemy is our natural need to want to explain our side first. After all, we reason, if they understood our perspective, they would come to the same conclusions we did.

o Our second enemy is our ineffectiveness as listeners. Listening is much more than being quiet so we can have our turn.

o Our third enemy is fear. Fear that we will not get our way. Fear of losing something we cherish. Fear that we will look foolish.

o Our fourth enemy is the assumption that one of us has to lose if the other is going to win and that we have to compete to solve our differences.

The good news is that there are simple and effective tools to spin positive solutions out of disagreements. Nevertheless, do not let the simplicity of the concepts obscure the challenge of carrying them out consistently.

If we encourage others to explain their side first, then they will be more apt to listen to ours. Next, people in disagreement often focus on their positions, when instead they should be focusing on their needs. By focusing on positions, we tend to underscore our disagreements. When we concentrate on needs, we find we have more in common than what we had assumed. This will satisfy the sum of both our needs and their needs. When the light goes on, we realize that it is not a zero sum game, where one person has to lose for the other to win. Nor is it necessary to solve disagreements with a lame compromise. Instead, often both parties can be winners.

Not all conflicts can be resolved without the benefit of a third party mediator. Mediation encourages constructive communication in a non-adversarial atmosphere (Gibson, 1). The Mediator acts as a facilitator helping the parties generate win/win alternatives in a cooperative setting. If the problem has legal implications, as in a sexual harassment situation, lawyers would have to sort it all out.

Solution

If more than one solution can solve the problem, decide which is the most ethical. All organizations need rules so that everyone knows what to expect. A clearly written policy would prohibit favoritism, harassment, and a hostile work environment. Consistent enforcement of these policies should be fully supported from the top, on down.

• Agree on a resolution to the problem (Hodowanes, 00).

• Write it down.

• Set a time for implementation.

• Have the employee sign it.

Summary

Fairness simply means that all employees are treated the same, under the same circumstances. There should be no favoritism. No one likes to be second best. This does not mean that superior performance should go unrewarded. To employees, fairness also means comparable (fair) wages and benefits. Managers need to be sensitive to employee feelings. Acknowledgment and concern about employee feelings about work issues are an important part of establishing a relationship. In employee relations, perceptions are more important than reality. Employees will act on what they perceive or believe. It is important that employees be well informed and told the truth, even when it may be uncomfortable for management or employees. Employees need to know what to expect from managers. No one likes surprises unless they are good surprises. Knowing the expectations of managers will greatly reduce employee stress. There is no substitute for good employee/employer relations!

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References

Billikopf, G. 1. Handling Differences Productively. The Regents of the University of California and Gregorio Billikopf

Agricultural Extension, Stanislaus County. Received and reviewed December 5, 00. Available on line at http//www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7article/article15.htm

Dubinsky, J. 00. Ethics Case Studies. Case # Molly’s Story. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//www.imanet.org/content/About_IMA/EthicsCenter/CaseStudies/casenotes.html

Erdreich, B. et al. 18. Adherence to the Merit Principles in the Workplace Federal Employees Views. U. S. Merit Systems Protection Board. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//16...100/search?q=cachehiMkMBiFH5cCwww.mspb.gov/studies/adhere.pdf+favoritism+workplace+relevant+factors&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Frost M. 18. Favoritism in the Workplace. Received and reviewed December 5, 00.

Available on line at http//www.truthpublications.org/articles/favor.htm

Gearing, J. 000. The Whistleblowers. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/magazine/000/01/is.whistleblowers.html

Gibson, C. 1. Employee Relations 101. Received and reviewed December 5, 00. Available on line at http//16...100/search?q=cachegJ1FDbyLJUCwww.kayang.com.cn/doc_lib/re.doc+employer+employee+conflict+solution+favoritism&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Hodowanes, J. 00. Job Articles - It is Performance Review Time Again - A Manager’s Perspective. OCjobSite. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//www.ocjobsite.com/job-articles/performance-reviews.asp

Online Ethics Center for Science and Engineering. 00. Article Number 5 Playing Favorites. Received and reviewed December 5, 00. Available on line at http//onlineethics.org/corp/fav.html

Rossheim, J. 001. Monster Love Conquers All Workplaces. Received and reviewed on December , 00. Available on line http//content.aolcom.aol.monster.com/wlb/articles/attheoffice/conquers/

Smith, G. 00. How to Manage Conflict. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//www.chartcourse.com/articleconflict.html

Secretary of the Air Force. 18. Civilian Conduct and Responsibility. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//16...100/search?q=cacheDaZnG7v8TEkCwww.spacecom.af.mil/1mssdpc/afi6-70.pdf+Supervisor+Employee+favoritism+ethics&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

University of Denver. 001. DU Policies. Received and reviewed December 6, 00. Available on line at http//www.du.edu/hr/new_ee/policies.html

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yoasdf

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Anthem For Doomed Youth - Imperial War Museum

Story by Sue Burley

October 1, 00 � April 7, 00

I am making this statement as an act of willful defiance of military authority … I have seen and endured the suffering of the troops, and I can no longer be a party to prolong these sufferings for ends which I believe are evil and unjust.

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So wrote Siegfried Sassoon (pictured below, right) to his commanding officer in 117. The full statement was read out in the House of Commons and later printed in The Times on July 1.

A knowledge of the First World War and the work of the war poets does not quite prepare you for the pathos of this exhibition, displaying as it does a wide variety of original manuscripts, letters and photographs of 1 young men fighting in the trenches of the First World War.

When a friend asked the slightly older Edward Thomas if he knew what he would be fighting for, he picked up a pinch of earth and, crumbling it, said Literally, for this.

This is what most of these young men would have thought, fighting in defence of their homes and England, aspirations that would soon end in disillusionment on encountering the worst of human suffering and degradation. After his death on April , 117 by shell blast, Thomass pocket watch was found to have stopped at 7.6am, the exact recorded moment of his death. This was one of the most poignant pieces of memorabilia, among many.

Julian Grenfell, who loved hunting and riding, was extremely militaristic and enjoyed the male companionship of the Royal Dragoons to the full. It seems he took an abnormal joy in killing people.

…The fighting excitement revitalises everything, every sight, word and action. One loves ones fellow man so much more when one is bent on killing them.

But even he, in his poem Into Battle, published on the day he was killed by a shrapnel splinter in 115, wrote these beautiful end lines

The thundering line of battle stands

And in the air Death moans and sings;

But Day shall clasp him with strong hands

And night shall fold him in soft wings.

Sepia photographs take us back to a pre-war innocence. Letters sent home to friends and family prove to be especially touching and, in some cases, display a façade of cheerful energy, making light of the unbearable conditions in the trenches.

These young men could so easily have been our own sons, brothers, lovers; and it is a strength of this exhibition that it forces you to look again at your own sons and their friends and give thanks that they have not been exposed to such deadly self-sacrifice.

I wonder at the lasting effect of the psyche of a nation so brutally deprived of the youth of one generation. In 115, the Brooke family not only lost Rupert, who died of blood poisoning in Skyros, but also his brother, Alfred, in the same year.

Only five of these poets returned home after the war and one, Ivor Gurney, was committed to a mental institution, where he died in 17.

But the lasting impression is the poetry; original manuscripts, often written in torrid, dehumanising places. Nevertheless, these young men wrote some of the most dramatic, barbed and lyrical verse of the 0th Century.

I think it would have been appropriate to have at least one woman represented in this exhibition. Vera Brittain was a writer and poet who lost both her fiancee, Roland Leighton, and later her brother, Edward. She served in the war, nursing the wounded in France and Malta. Her poems are full of the agony of bereavement and loneliness.

There are also some stark oil paintings by Paul Nash and Gilbert Rogers, depicting horrors that leap at you from the canvases.

It might be advisable to take a magnifying glass, as many of the letters are faded and difficult to read. Allow at least two hours to do the exhibition justice.

But if your back aches after a while, a small area has been set aside for browsing through a selection of poetry books and to give visitors a break if the pity of war becomes too harrowing.

Please note that this sample paper on yoasdf is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on yoasdf, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on yoasdf will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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the conciliation and the national picture

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Q1 THE CONCILIATION


‘The Conciliation’, 1840, shows a single white man, George Augustus Robinson, amidst a group of local, traditionally portrayed and behaving Tasmanian Aborigines.


The main purpose of the text is to explain and present the initial reaction and effect that occurred when George Robinson was first sent on his journey to Tasmania to conciliate with and relocate the Aborigines there. The text is showing what happened before the actual event of moving them, and their initial views and outlooks on the situation. The text helps to visually express the scene of what happened when Robinson arrived and the confusion and curiosity of the Aboriginal people.


The main visual elements in the text are made up of the people’s positions and expressions. The body language shown is important in the understanding of the text.


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There are a lot of different perspectives and views shown in the Aborigines faces on the issue of George Robinson’s proposal, and whether they want to trust him or not.


The Aborigines closest to Robinson, such as the man on his right which is shaking his hand, and the two women pointing towards him, suggest that they are trustworthy and want to accept him and cooperate with his ideas and proposition. Whereas there are other Aborigines in the picture, that appear not so sure about the whole idea. The man which is standing behind yet slightly to the right of Robinson and has the other man’s hand on his shoulder, doesn’t appear to want to trust him. The Aborigine, who is shaking his hand and appears trusting, is looking towards the other man and showing that he wants to respect Robinson, yet the one behind is looking at this man like he doesn’t want to get involved and telling him by facial expression that it doesn’t sound like such a good idea. Another man who is kneeling behind the two pointing women also shows this. They seem to want to trust Robinson as well, yet the kneeling Aboriginal man is reaching towards the closest woman’s shoulder as in to hold her back and not to trust this white stranger.


There are other figures in the text which don’t appear to want to have anything to do with the situation, such as the two men who are sitting on the ground and are clearly only focusing on their traditional hunting ways and preparing for a hunt by fixing up their spears. The animals in the text also represent their traditional lifestyle of hunting, their wildlife and what they hunted, (such as the kangaroo).


George Augustus Robinson is portrayed as wanting to appear a trusting, sincere man and gain the Aborigines respect without needing to present them with any form of contributions or gifts to alter their lifestyle. He wanted them to trust him and accept his ideas as a person and by not using force. His face expresses a powerful look, to show that he knows what he’s doing; yet there is also a hint of smugness and sneakiness in his eyes, which is perhaps why some of the Aborigines appear to not want to trust him at all.


Q THE NATIONAL PICTURE


The purpose of the text, ‘The National Picture’, 185, is a modernised version of ‘The Conciliation’, and shows what happened after George Augustus Robinson had succeeded in transferring the Aborigines out of Tasmania.


It shows the changes that occurred when the Aborigines were gone, what the “new owners” of the land, (white people), did to it and changed about it to make it more suited to their such different lifestyle.


The whole environment is completely changed and typical of today’s standards. The text is set out in exactly the same layout as The Conciliation, as in people in the same positions, and some of the original scenery and images which have been taken from the first text to make it relate and seem distinct on what The National Picture is trying to show.


By the use the same positions and layout of people, but giving them different expressions and tools of modern day time, the text, The National Picture creates a whole different and new meaning. Instead of showing Aborigines with their traditional hunting instruments like spears and hunting dogs, wearing animal skin for clothing and living a natural life, this image has been appropriated by changing all of that to things and objects used now in present time by white people. Now, where the Aborigines were in the land they were part of, it shows that white people now own the land and are carrying and using surveying instruments to map and change the area to suit it to their needs. Now that the Aborigines are gone, the land can be altered and explored and have done to it whatever the new ‘owners’ want.


Where once stood Aborigines with hunting animals now stands surveyors with eskies and radios.


Instead of where George Augustus Robinson stood all that time ago, surrounded by a group of Aborigines, now stands a representation of one of the last surviving and Trusting Aborigines ‘ Truganini’, amongst the White surveyors. Although the Aborigines had been taken out of their land for white people to take over, this one Aborigine is still willing to befriend and forgive.


Other items of the original, ‘ The Conciliation’, have been replaced and appropriated with modern day icons that obviously change the perspective of events, such as the corrugated iron fence and the Aboriginal ‘sports bag’ instead of where the grassy hill and sleeping dog once were. And the use of a kangaroo skin instead of the actual live kangaroo can indicate the erosion and destruction of Aboriginal culture and the once natural environment.


The Composer of this work has really changed the meaning completely of the issue of the original painting, and just by the subtlest changes. He keeps the whole layout of the image, which makes it relate so well, yet by changing just the facial expressions from unsure or trustworthy to just not really even caring for most of them, or the Aboriginal spears to surveying instruments, completely alters the whole perspective of what has happened.


Q PROCESSES AND RESULTS OF CHANGE


These texts, when viewed together, The Conciliation first, then followed by The National Picture, creates an extremely strong aspect of change. There are so many differences that no matter who the audience or viewer of the text is, it is clear to see that the changes are real, that once, that is how it used to be, and then how it is now.


When the Aborigines of Tasmania were still living there, everything was traditional and unique. They did nothing to change the land as they felt that they belonged to it, not the other way around - (it belonging to them). When white people came to Australia, they felt they had to move the Aborigines to elsewhere because they wanted to do things with ‘their’ new land. That is why George Augustus Robinson was sent to remove the Aborigines of Tasmania, so they could use it as their own, and transform the land into what they wanted, which is shown in The National Picture.


Change is the central and biggest feature in The National Picture, because it doesn’t only reflect historical change, and what happened with the Aborigines when Robinson was sent, but the change also deals with and expresses cultural and technological change. The two artworks create an element that shows a gigantic leap in society from genocide to reconciliation, and from racism to multiculturalism.


In the original, The Conciliation, it” hypocritically celebrates the dispossession of indigenous land”, and the ‘new version’, The National Picture portrays a different agreement strategy that recognizes the need for a return of land to those whom it was taken from.


In The National Picture, the composer uses many visual images and changes which represent to the viewer that the original ‘agreement’ made with the Aborigines and George Robinson was dishonest, uncaring and disgraceful. It shows this with all the instruments which are used by the white people, that they have taken the Aborigines’ position on their land, both physically (in the text) and mentally, as Tasmania is now seen as another part of white Australia. After Robinson’s ‘agreement’, everything changed and became modernised and the Aboriginal history was lost and destroyed.


Ethnicity is an important feature of both of the texts, which is different cultures, the Aborigines and the white Australians. Both texts trace changes, which have occurred over time, that mark foundations in Australian national history and cultural identity. They both visually capture truthful situations such as generations of abuse, oppression and unfair treatment, which are now changing by progressing signs of reconciliation, cultural rebirth and celebration.


The two texts are both very similar, yet still have extreme differences. They both demonstrate and show clearly important issues of cultural, ethical and historical change. The Conciliation represents and celebrates an end to racial discrimination and bloodshed, while The National Picture expresses cultural awareness and acceptance. They are both related expressions of their times, indicating existing attitudes and perspectives, beliefs and political and social outlooks.


Q5 HOW AND WHY I HAVE APPROPRIATED THE TEXT


I have appropriated these texts to create a third visual text in the series, which is more suited to modern day times. It contains and portrays issues about recent Aboriginal standards in Australia and past issues that have taken place with reconciliation and agreements with Aboriginal people.


I have used the same layout and structure of the other two texts, with the similar positions and stance of the other people, but have yet again changed the expressions and body language to represent a different issue.


My appropriated visual text deals with the issue of land rights and when Gough Whitlam presented an Aboriginal man with a hand full of soil to represent handing their land back to them. But by that time, Aboriginal lifestyle had changed dramatically from the old traditions they had. Aborigines were becoming more influenced by white culture and became interested in alcohol and drugs. I have represented this by the street kids on the right side of the picture. There is also the issue of sniffing petrol in Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory, which is another issue I included.


These teenagers on the right side of the text are still basically expressed in the same positions as the other two texts, but the expressions and objects like things they are holding, alcohol and cigarettes, presents a completely different outlook on the Aboriginal lifestyles after the strong influence of white society.


On the left side of the text, I have shown here how Aboriginal culture is slowly coming back and being accepted in modern civilization. People, such as tourists, like to see traditional Aboriginal performances and artworks coming back, but they usually don’t have original tribal meanings like they used to, as these are often sacred and cannot be viewed in public. In my appropriation, I have included a performance of an Aboriginal dance, but instead of being performed as it used to be with a story to it, it is simply only being shown as a busking item.


The people standing behind the Aboriginal man accepting the ‘land’ (soil), were once onlookers in the originals, and are now documenting the issue and reporting it for news. As if it’s only being done for publicity, and not as importantly for Aboriginal land rights.


Q6 EVIDENT LINKS BETWEEN TEXTS AND LOOKING FOR ALIBRANDI


The main evidential links between the stimulus booklet material, texts A and B, and the text, Looking For Alibrandi, definitely is shown as changing perspective, both for the texts themselves, such as the people shown in them, and to the viewer and audience.


The Audience mostly sees a change in perspective by the first impression of things, such as George Augustus Robinson conciliating with the Aborigines of Tasmania to move them from the land, and then the fact that the white people have just taken over their land and made it their own in ‘The National Picture’. This is a change in perspective as in, first the white people appeared friendly and were doing the transferring for a good cause, and in the second text, it appeared that they only were moving them for their own good. In Looking For Alibrandi, the change in perspective is more relevant not through the reader, but through the character of the text and the changes she goes through as a person in life, her family and friends.


Both texts include the issue of culture and respect in the subject of change, although they have opposite matters. One is changing to understand and appreciate culture and identity, Looking For Alibrandi, and the other is changing to disrespect land rights and not understand culture, The National Picture. But still in The National Picture, some Aboriginal symbols are included and still the subject of communication and respect from the Aboriginal Woman, represented as Truganini is shown, although the issue of The Conciliation, to some, she is portrayed as a traitor.








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Analysis of Bela Bartok's String Quartet No.4 Movement 3

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Bela Bartok¡¦s third movement of his fourth string quartet written in 18 has a highly engaging and emotive effect on the listener as Bartok¡¦s harmonic world reveals a highly sonorous and atmospheric sound-scape. It is difficult to identify any fundamental scale, mode or tonal center. However, based on Bartok¡¦s reputation in the world of ethnomusicology and his penchant for intermingling folk music and traditional western harmonic practices, it would not be any surprise to find that through set theory analysis modes play a functional in the tonal structure of the movement. This analysis focuses on the pitch class collections obtained from segmenting the movement and how it relates to traditional analytical parameters such as articulation and form.


Bartok¡¦s Sting Quartet No.4 comprises of 5 movements. The slow movement (III) is the kernel of the work, with the 4 other movements arranged in layers around it. Bartok employed an arch form when constructing the quartet A-B-C-B-A (fast-scherzo-slow-scherzo-fast). The slow movement (III) is the kernel of the work; with the 4 other movements arranged in layers around it.


The third movement contains material independent of the other movements as a means of contrast and highlighting it as the central movement and point of symmetry. Within the third movement itself Bartok has employed a ternary form that is symmetrically sectioned (the coloured bands in the score).


A- Non troppo lento [mm.1]


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„� 1 [mm. 1-1]


„� 8 [mm. 14-1]


„� 1 [mm. -4]


„� 8 [mm. 4-41]


B- Agitato [mm. 4]


„� 5 [mm. 4-46]


„� 8 [mm. 47-54]


A¡¦- Tranquillo [mm.56]


„� 8 [mm. 55bt-6bt]


„� 8 [mm. 64-71]


Each of these coloured band sections are distinct and different through Bartok¡¦s use of different pitch class sets, articulations and constant timbral and textural changes.


Form/Section Band Colour Measure Number Timbre


A 1


Bars Brown mm. 1-1 Solo Vc


PCSet -6


Accomp VnI & II, Va


PCSet 6-


8


Bars Yellow mm. 14-1 Solo Vc


PCSet 8-11, -6


Accomp VnI & II, Va


PCSet 6-18


1


Bars Orange mm. -4 Solo Vc


PCSet 7-


Accomp VnI & II, Va


PCSet 6-4


8


Bars Green mm. 4-41 Solo VnI


[Entire ¡§codetta¡¨ uses PCSet 8-10 as the solo Vn part does not have enough notes to form a set]


Accomp VnII, Va, Vc


PCSet 6-Z45


B 5


Bars Pink mm. 4-46 Solo VnII


PCSet 7-5


Accomp VnI, Va, Vc


PCSet 6-Z


8


Bars Turquoise mm. 47-54 ¡¥Solo¡¦VnII Pcset 7-1


Va Pcset 5-Z1


Canon PCSuperset 8-


Accomp VnI, Vc


PCSet 5-5


A¡¦ 8


Bars Purple mm. 55bt-6bt ¡¥Solo¡¦ Canon VnI, Vc


No Main Dominating PCSet


Accomp VnII, Va


PCSet -6, 7-5, 6-Z46, 6-


8 Red mm. 64-71 Solo VnI


PCset -6


Accomp VnII, Va, Vc


PCSet mainly 6-


An entire dissertation can be written Bartok¡¦s use of symmetry in this string quartet. This particular analysis focuses on set theory more than Bartok¡¦s use of symmetry in this movement. However symmetry is inherent in every single part of this movement eg. Form ternary; symmetry in the prominent sets found eg. -6, 7-5; use of canon (which will be discussed later). Bartok uses the chromatic sets eg. 6-1 and set 7-1 most notably that have a tonal axis of symmetry eg. mm. 47-4 in the violin II set 7-1 is used with the notes A-Bb-B-C-Db-D-Eb. C is used as a point of tonal reference (axis/mirror). However instead of utilising the chromatic possibilities in the set, Bartok plays mirror games, alternating between pitches. This is seen throughout the movement ¡VIn mm.47 in the semi-quaver triplet A rises to B, and Bb rises to C moving diatonically using the first ¡¥half¡¦ of set 7-1. In mm.48 Eb drops to Db and D drops to C. The overall set effect of movement towards the central axis, C. In contrast, in mm. 67-68 set 6-1 (0,1,,,4,5) A-G#-G--F#-F-E there is movement from the middle of the set out ie. mm. 67 beat G drops to F and F# drops to E. mm.68, F# rises to G#, and G rises to A. Using the overlap of the two central pitches G and F# there is an overall set effect of movement outwards to the ends of the set which is emphasised by the initial A-E chord on mm. 67 beat and mm. 68 beat .


A graph was made for statistical purposes showing the frequency of the pitch class sets that were segmented in the movement. The top five are as follows


PCSet Freq


6- 14


-6 7


7-5 6


4- 6


4-1 4


Set 6- had the most number of occurrences. This is attributed to the fact that it was used on numerous occasions as a chord pedal but most noticeably at the beginning of the movement mm.1-1 and at the end mm. 64-6. It is worth mentioning that although set 6- is used eg. in the beginning and the end of the movement, the chordal spacings and distribution of pitches vary and are distinctly different. However the spacings of the accompanying chord pedal are usually wide (eg. 4ths, 6ths) as a means of contrast to the diatonic-chromatic thematic material. Another trend to note from the PCSet frequency table is that eighty percent of the top five sets are symmetrical.


As in most tonal music, Bartok uses cadences at the end of sections. In the absence of keys and modulations, there are particular pitch class collections that are used cadentially or as a final chord to end a particular section.





Measure Set Note


1 6- Subset of -6


1 7-4 Subset of -6


6- �É 8- Subsets of -6


41 6-Z11 Subset of -6


54 6-4 Subset of -6


6 5- Subset of --1


6-70 8-�É7-5 Subsets of -6


Bartok assigned precise articulations (eg. sul ponticello, vibrato, pizzicato, harmonics) to particular textures and instrumentation, almost as an aural indicator. These articulations and instrumentational groupings underpinned many of the decisions in segmenting the work. Eg. Throughout the movement the accompaniment has a specific articulation as a distinguishing characteristic eg. Violin I & II & viola are the accompaniment mm.1-4 Bartok denoted non-vibrato vibrato. The oscillating ensuing texture provides a contrast to the solo violoncello mm1-4 where espressivo is specified.


Other examples where paired articulation specifications denote the solo or accompaniment texture is in mm.4-46 where a legato Violin II plays on sul IV (darker tone) stands out against the violin I, viola & violoncello¡¦s distinctive alternations of sul ponticello tremolos and ordinary bowing providing a contrasting percussive texture. Also mm.55-5 where the accompaniment (violin II & viola) use mutes (con sordino) and the thematic duo (violin I & violoncello) are marked espressivo. Again in mm.47-4 the viola line is prominent through its change in register and use of harmonics that aid in the aural identification of a new section (turquoise colour band) and the introduction of a subset of -6, 5-Z1.


The beginning of Section B (mm.4) ¡VAgitato- is structurally significant, as all preceding material (mm.4-40-codetta) appears to lead up to it. This is emphasised by the unprecedented pizzicato texture change and use of sul ponticello from mm.40. Utilising the Golden mean (0.618) based on the Fibonacci series (a series based on the sum of previous numbers) in this movement mm.4-46 are the natural climactic point or apex (¡¥in an ideal ratio¡¦) of the movement.


4/71= 0.515 4/71=0.6056 44/71=0.617 45/71=0.68 46/71= 0.647


From the ¡¥Kh Relationships ¡VMileage Chart¡¦ & the bar graph showing the total number of Kh Relationships, it can be seen that a Nexus set is present by the high number of Kh relationships that set 4- (047) has (excepting the Set ¡§¡¦s¡¨).


Despite having the next highest number of relationships that set 6- had, its function as a nexus set was dismissed as a possibility. Set 4- is a more logical choice due to a number of reasons; such as 4- is a subset that is consistently found within other sets eg. 7-5, 6-, 6-Z45. The modal aspect of the set is consistent with Bartok¡¦s reputed use of folk tunes a modal flavour that permeates through the entire movement.


A combination of -6 & 4- (subset of -6) on the Kh Mileage chart reveal that they have relationships with almost all the sets. Conversely, there are certain sets that are independent of relationships to -6 or the nexus 4-. [These are highlighted on the Kh mileage chart in yellow.] These independent sets are 5- (0,1,4,6,); 6-18 (0,1,,5,7,8); 6-Z (0,,,6,7,); 8-8 (0,1, ,4,7,8,). Their purpose is to have an unrelated pitch class set that complement and contrast with other material. eg. The use of set 6-18 as a harmonic chord pedal accompaniment mm.1-0 in Violins I & II & Viola. Section B¡¦s material for the first five bars (mm.4-46) comprise of set 6-Z, it is used in the accompaniment. Set 6-Z¡¦s super set 7-5 is used as the solo violin thematic material. Set 5- is a subset of -1. -1 and it¡¦s subsets (eg. 6-Z6, 6-Z46, 7-Z17, 7-6)is a set that is used and featured in Section A¡¦ mm.55 beat -6 mostly in the violoncello part.


-6 (0,1,,,4,5,6,8,10) is a superset that is used and whose subsets features often. In the Kh mileage chart, -6/-6 had the most Kh relationships, however that is not an objective validation as ¡§¡¦s¡¨ have a lot of relationships. -6 however does occur a lot and manifests itself through its many subsets. An interesting feature of -6 as a superset are the characteristics of its subsets chromatic (eg. 6-1, 4-1); diatonic (7-5); pentatonic (5-5 & nexus 4-) and whole-tone scale (5-) encapsulated under set -6. All these possible sets are consistently featured in the movement. These particular multi-faceted harmonic characteristics of -6 allow Bartok to create a cohesive sound world in which to combine folk modes & traditional western harmony as seen throughout the movement.


The set -6 dominates the entire first thirteen bars of A. -6 is a superset to all of the sets found through segmentation mostly by phrase or texture (i.e. Homophony which is the predominating texture in this movement).


Accompaniment- solely 6- (0457)


[whose subsets are -6 (04), 4- (047), 5-5 (047)]


Solo Vc-subsets of -6


7-(0158); 4-1 (01); 6-1 (0145); 6-Z6 (01578); 7-5 (0156810)


Set -6 is omitted throughout Section B but makes its return in the chord pedal accompaniment through muted violin II and viola in mm.56-5 (Section A¡¦).


In section A¡¦ mm. 67-71 (Red Band colour -final ¡¥codetta¡¦) set -6 is used to provide the static harmonic pedal in comparison to Section A where solo violoncello thematic material was derived from -6.


There is significant use of canons in mm. 50-54 and in Section A¡¦ (a free recapitulatory section mm.55 beat -6). Bartok does not use strict canon, instead he uses a ¡¥free¡¦ canonical form, as well as free imitation. In mm. 50 the violin II and viola are a quaver apart with the viola taking the ¡¥lead¡¦ and playing pitches higher than violin II. The violin II imitation is not exact. Bartok uses a mirror canon in mm.5-54 between violin II and the viola moving in contrary motion. The set used is 8-6 (0,1,,,5,6,7,8) which comprises of two sets of 4-1 each part playing their own respective 4-1 set. Bartok utilises the symmetry of 4-1 in the mirror canon and the exclusive pitch class set 8-6 that is unrelated to -6 and 4-.


The use of canon in Section A¡¦ (purple colour band) is between the violoncello and violin I. Beginning in mm.55 beat with violoncello (using set 7-6), violin I enters three crotchet beats later on an initially contracted imitation in almost exact contrary motion (using set 7-5). In mm. 57 beat 4 the violoncello begins another phrase (using set 8-14). Violin I answers two crotchet beats later again in almost exact contrary motion (using set 7-14). The next phrase begins with the violoncello in mm.5 beat 4 (using set 8-8) and answered two crotchet beats later by violin I a tritone higher in similar motion (using set 7-4). The next phrase begins in mm. 60 with violoncello (using -1) is a crotchet beat apart from violin I (using set 6-Z46 followed by 7-Z17 [a subset of -1]).





Set theory is useful in analysing a work such as this in order to comprehend the underlying tonal structure of the work and gain an insight into Bartok¡¦s compositional machinations. On analysis of the movement the overall harmonic world that Bartok employs in this movement is a tonal one with strong modal influences. Particular pitch collections consistently appear such as the whole-tone scale (0,,4,6,8,10); the pentatonic scale (0,,4,7,); diatonic collections such as 7-4(0,1,,4,6,8,10) and 7-5 (0,1,,5,6,8,10); and chromatic collections such as 5-1 (0,1,,,4) and 6-1 (0,1,,,4,5).


As previously mentioned the representative pitch class superset that embody Bartok¡¦s ambitions with regards to the movement (i.e. the interactions between diatonic and modal) is -6 (0,1,,,4,5,6,8,10). It is a hybrid superset that contains chromatic, diatonic and modal elements that reveal Bartok¡¦s reasons for utilising it and its subsets liberally throughout the movement. However to gain a complete insight into Bartok¡¦s compositional manoeuvrings, techniques and style, set theory is limited in its revelations. Other analytical techniques such as those of tone clock and twelve-tone analysis would be inappropriate and unsuitable in this particular work. Nevertheless, an extensive analysis of structure and symmetry would expose more clearly Bartok¡¦s compositional genius.


Bibliography


Any outside materials or Set Theory Ideas or information were obtained from


Jay Tomlin¡¦s Set Theory Calculator


http//home.adelphia.net/~jtomlin/settheory/home.html


Larry Solomon¡¦s website for Set Theory


http//www.azstarnet.com/~solo/setheory.htm


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Stonehenge-When? Who? Why?

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Author’s Note Since history first started recording Stonehenge, Stonehenge has been a mystery. The three biggest questions being who built Stonehenge, how did those people build Stonehenge, and why? This essay is only meant to be on when, who and why, not how, but because there are so many stories and theories in answer to “who built Stonehenge” that include “how was Stonehenge built”, these will not be incorporated. This essay has also been written for a reader with a fair bit of knowledge about Stonehenge and its environment.


Stonehenge, an ancient stone monument on Salisbury Plain, England, was built in three stages- Stonehenge I-the earthwork monument, Stonehenge II-the wooden monument, and Stonehenge III-the stone monument. The oldest part of Stonehenge is the post-holes. These are collections of holes at the north-east and southern entrances, and the centre of Stonehenge. These holes date to about 8000 B.C., older than any of the other ancient world monuments. Stonehenge I was built at about 000 B.C. in the Middle Neolithic era, also known as the ‘Age of Astronomy’. In about 650 B.C., Stonehenge II was built in the Late Neolithic era, also known as the ‘Age of Sacred Landscapes’. Finally, the stone monument we see today, Stonehenge III, was built at about 000 B.C., between the Early and Middle Bronze Age eras.


These times are very important when deciding which group of people actually built and used Stonehenge. The people of the Middle Ages credited Stonehenge to such Classical Age groups as the Egyptians, Mycenaeans, Romans and Greeks. This is mostly because these cultures were known to have the great mathematical and architectural knowledge to build something as advanced as Stonehenge. As they were at the peak times of their civilisations, they were constructing great monuments of their own. The Egyptians, for example, were building the great pyramids of Giza. The Greeks were thought to have built Stonehenge, because several of the up-right Sarsen stones had dagger shapes carved into them which are much like the traditional signature of the Greeks. The placement of the stones also has a resemblance to Agamemnon’s city wall, and the Lion Gate of Mycenae. However, the Romans did not settle in Britain until the 1st century B.C. and these civilisations existed up to 1500 years after Stonehenge I was erected.


One of the most popular beliefs is that Stonehenge was built by the Druids, the Celtic high priests, who used it for their rituals and worship. John Aubrey came up with this idea in the 17th Century A.D. The Druids of the time grabbed at the theory and spread it. But again this theory was disproved because Carbon dating shows that the Celts, having moved into Britain in about 00 B.C., way to late to be Stonehenge’s builders. However recently, The Order of Druids has come up with a new idea, which means that it could have been a Druid monument after all. They say that the Celts didn’t accomplish one ‘invasion’ of Britain, and that they more married into the population already there. This means that at least some Druids could have been there much earlier, perhaps as early as the time of Stonehenge’s construction. But this again is more likely to be a scheme by the modern Druids to gain popularity. Also, the Celtic Druids preferred to worship in open forests and marshes, not temples on bare plains.


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Aubrey Burl, a British scholar, has suggested that Stonehenge was built by the ancient French, namely the Bretons of France. Burl says that a carving on one of the stones bears a resemblance to Breton images of female guardians of the dead. The horseshoe configuration of Stonehenge’s central trilithons are also very alike 16 standing-stones in Britanny. However, the main problem with this theory is that there are no Breton sites comparable to Stonehenge. It is also more likely that Stonehenge III’s trilithons were copied from local sites such as Woodhenge.


The most popular theory is that the three stages of Stonehenge were built by three different groups. The Windmill Hill people probably built Stonehenge I. They were the local people of the time and liked to build circular furrows, surrounded by ditches, like Stonehenge. In 000 B.C. the Beaker Folk invaded. They buried their dead with weapons, and so the bodies at Stonehenge are probably theirs and they had enough mathematical knowledge to align Stonehenge II with the solstices. Lastly the Wessex people arrived in 1500 B.C. They were one of the most advanced cultures in Europe with great trading, military and mathematical knowledge. They probably carved the daggers and axes into the stones of Stonehenge III.


Lastly there are many Middle Ages legends of Stonehenge being built by such people as the Devil, Merlin, King Arthur, giants, the people of Atlantis and as the burial ground of the Celtic warrior queen Boadicea, however these myths are so absurd that they are not worth considering.


As little remnants of any of these cultures remains, it is near impossible to tell why Stonehenge was constructed.


One popular theory is that Stonehenge was the site of sacrifices or executions, or a burial ground. Cremated remains were placed in the pits of the poles of Stonehenge II and bodies have been found in the ditch and surrounding area. One of these is a rich Swiss archer known as the “King of Stonehenge”. The idea of execution or sacrifice came from the meaning of ‘henge’, which is ‘to hang’. Some people have taken this to meaning the hanging of criminals from the trilithons. Also is the Altar Stone which people may have been laid upon. However the Altar Stone was originally upright, and due to the nature of the local people a burial site would not have been as extravagant.


The other greatest theory is that Stonehenge is aligned with the sun, stars and moon and was therefore for predicting eclipses, changing seasons or the midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset. However most of the claimed alignments are so imperfect that it is most likely that they are coincidence, especially seeing Stonehenge is a circular shape. It is likely however that the people of Stonehenge would have aligned Stonehenge and it’s Avenue with the Midwinter sunset because the Winter Solstice is of particular importance because it symbolises rebirth and distinguishes between farming seasons. If Stonehenge was aligned with the Midwinter sunset, then it therefore would have to be aligned with the Midsummer sunrise, but this sunrise was probably of no importance to the people.


Finally, is also the theory that Stonehenge was a temple to the Earth Mother and therefore a giant fertility symbol. This goddess was certainly important enough to the people to have such a temple erected in her honour. Supposedly Stonehenge, from above, looks like the female sexual organ, and the horseshoe of trilithons in the centre like the birth canal, which would associate Stonehenge with the Earth Mother. However this theory is almost certainly incorrect for many reasons. Firstly, why would there be burials at a place associated only with life? How would the people know what it looked like from above? And Stonehenge was put together over a long period of time, and originally in the time of Stonehenge I, the Earth Mother was not worshipped.


It is my opinion that Stonehenge was built in turn by the Windmill Hill, Beaker and Wessex peoples, as they had the technology and lived in the immediate area. I also believe that Stonehenge was for some ritual purpose, perhaps a mixture of all the theories here. It may also have been a meeting place or marker. The one thing I do know for sure is that so far none of these theories have been sufficiently proven, and more theories are being suggested every day. One day I hope we will know Stonehenge’s origins for sure.


Bibliography


Search Engines


Google Search Engine-http//www.google.com


Yahoo Search Engine-http//www.yahoo.com


Websites


About Stonehenge-http//www.aboutstonehenge.info


Archaeology An Official Publication of the Archaeological Institute of America-http//www.archaeology.org


Page Wise-http//www.allsands.com


The Free Essay Network-http//www.4freeessays.com


The British Heritage Organisation-http//www.english-heritage.org.uk


The Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids Website-http//druidry.org


On Target Archery Magazine-http//www.dellarco.com


Books


Souden, David, STONEHENGE Mysteries of the Stones and Landscape, Sandstone Books, Australia, 18


Other


Treasures Of The Ancient World Stonehenge, Cromwell Film Productions Limited, 18 (Video)


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Nuclear Energy

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The sun and stars are seemingly inexhaustible sources of energy. That energy is the result of nuclear reactions, in which matter is converted to energy. We have been able to harness that mechanism and regularly use it to generate power. Presently, nuclear energy provides for approximately 16% of the worlds electricity. Unlike the stars, the nuclear reactors that we have today work on the principle of nuclear fission. Scientists are working like madmen to make fusion reactors which have the potential of providing more energy with fewer disadvantages than fission reactors.Nuclear Energy should be produced because it is an alternative to fossil fuel. Nuclear energy helps to conserve our national resources that we use as fuel such as coil, oil, and natural gas. Another pro of nuclear energy is that radiation that is given off by nuclear energy is mostly thought of a very dangerous thing but it can be used in positive ways too. For example, if you break a bone a doctor can inject a radioactive phosphorous compound, which is a compound that concentrates on active growth surfaces of bone. Then the doctor can see which part of the bone has been broken or set in an improper position because of the phosphorous compound concentrating on that region. We should not allow nuclear energy production, because nuclear energy is how atomic bombs were created. Atomic Bombs is a bomb that derives its great explosive force from the sudden release of Nuclear Energy through the fission, or splitting, of a heavy atomic nuclei. In Wold War II the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killing thousands and thousands of innocent civilians. If it were not for nuclear energy this weapon of mass destruction would not be able to be made. Another reason nuclear energy production should not be allowed is because of the potential for dangerous radiation to get out of the nuclear power plant and cause many deaths and long term harmful effects to the people subjected to such radiation





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"Native American Treatment That Works"

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Robert F. Bragg NCAC II, LAT


A Therapeutic Look into Thunder Child Treatment Center


The Philosophy of treatment at Thunder Child does not parallel the Cognitive Behavioral approach utilized in many treatment centers today. It does not rely solely upon the well know Hazleton / 1-Step approach to help addicts and alcoholics achieve a state of balance. Our philosophy is one that utilizes the best practices of Traditional Native American Culture, the Red Road Path to Recovery along with sound therapeutic principles of Addictions Therapy and Mental Health Therapy. We Educate, Stimulate and help them Formulate their own Recovery Plans.


The mainstays of our treatment approach are


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1. Compassion for the individual coupled with treating each person with dignity and respect simply because each human being deserves it.


. Honoring of the trauma. Every person coming in to our treatment setting is wounded. They may have caused trauma to others but they themselves have suffered greatly and been traumatized by the disease of addiction, the dysfunction in families and from prejudicial dominant culture abuses.


. Spirituality. Each person coming to treatment benefits from our Cultural, contemporary and traditional approach to Native American Healing. The Creator is for all not just the chosen few. Each person finds their own path and is supported in doing so through Sweatlodge ceremonies, singing, smudging, talking circles, prayer breakfasts and solitude time.


We believe that addicts and alcoholics have had spiritual crisis in their life and that treatment is a time of healing mind, body and spirit. Each person is allowed the dignity to call their spirit back in a way that satisfies their cultural and traditional beliefs. This may include talking and praying with a traditional healer or medicine person from one of our neighboring tribes. It could include expressing themselves in the form of creativity in arts and crafts, writing or dance. It might mean having a period of time alone in prayer and thought. We believe each person comes in contact with their Creator differently and should have the right to do so.


We utilize numbered steps therapeutically in the following form, loosely predicated on the first five steps of Alcoholics Anonymous.


Step One- We admitted we were powerless over our drugs and alcohol and could not manage our lives while drinking and using.


We begin this step with an Autobiography to seek out habits and behavioral patterns that got in our way. Through the personal stories of recovering addicts we recognize the mistaken notions of false pride, shame, denial and egotism that commonly prevent us from accepting that we are powerless over alcohol and other drugs. The powerful honest and moving testimony helps us to understand what is meant by unmanageability, hitting bottom and humility. We cant help but recognize ourselves in the beliefs and behaviors that are revealed by those in treatment as we witness their transformation from denial to acceptance. Although the men and women in treatment represent different economic social and ethnic backgrounds the similarities are more evident than the differences.


Step Two - We came to believe that a Higher Power of our understanding could help us become rational and sane in our thinking once more.


Many addicted people have difficulty with the Second Step. We may mistake the emphasis on spirituality for a call to religion; we may resent the implication of insanity; or we may have difficulty coming back to a Higher Power we feel we have failed. Treatment is a compilation of interviews with recovering addicts and tackles these common barriers to recovery. Insanity does not mean mental illness but refers to losses associated with obsession for drugs and alcohol that take us away from traditional values. Spirituality is defined as what is good in life. The Higher Powers purpose as explained in treatment is to connect each of us to our own spirituality. Testimony from the men and women reveals the wide range of entities that can serve as Higher Powers and the relief and sanity that come from no longer fighting the illness alone. Once again the word WE becomes paramount to the I concept.


Step Three - Made a decision to return to the beliefs of my people and trust in those beliefs as a way of life.


Its one thing to tell people to turn it over. Its quite another to offer practical advice as to how this might be done. Treatment does just that. The stories of recovering people from all walks of life make the abstract concepts of the Third Step accessible to those of us who are new to the program. Included are specific examples of letting go discussions of the difference between Creators will and our own insignificant self-will and an examination of the concepts of trust, forgiveness, faith, patience, humility and tolerance. Living a spiritual life as experienced by the people in treatment requires re-framing belief patterns and accepting the beliefs we chose to turn our back on. The rewards of doing so are courage, contentment, security and serenity.


Step Four - We identified the Character Defects and secrets in our lives that continued to cause us to do harm to ourselves, our families, friends and society. We wrote these on paper so we could identify the patterns that caused our problems and be rid of them. We made decisions about our behaviors that would need to change to live a good life free from alcohol and drugs.


Abstaining from alcohol and drugs keeps the body clean; to maintain spiritual health recovering addicts must also free their minds and hearts from the secrets that burden them. In treatment the Fourth Step process is explained firsthand by other recovering addicts. It begins by exploring why its necessary to do an inventory. The viewer gets practical peer advice on how to do an inventory and learns how to avoid the pitfalls that can prevent us from proceeding with the Fourth Step. The men and women in treatment openly discuss the fears they had to overcome before taking the Fourth Step the fear of painful memories of being judged, abandonment and betrayal. They speak of the importance of trusting ones Higher Power and the group process. Elders are often sought out at this point to discuss the defects with. Clients gain courage from the testimony of their peers understanding that no one is unique in his or her pain. Treatment makes the task of honest disclosure less painful for all of us.


Step Five - We shared out fourth step pain and misery with the Creator and a fifth step listener in an honest and truthful way so that we did not have to carry our burden alone and could begin the process of self forgiveness.


The fifth step is a purification ceremony where each client goes through a process of sharing and giving their secrets, hurts, pains, and vulnerabilities to a person who is understanding, compassionate and sincere in confidentiality. Not even our counselors know what is in your each persons personal fourth step.


These Steps along with other groups, traditional and culturally appropriate activities make up the bulk of our treatment process. In reality the main work of treatment is done within the heart of each person who comes to Thunder Child. Their hopes, dreams and goals being shared along with their pain, fears and hurts allows them to become whole again and begin their journey anew.


Robert F. Bragg NCAC II, LAT #0A, WY - September 00





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Economic indicators on three countries

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Economics indicators


Introduction


Three countries will be analysed in this assignment, they are Australia, which is a More Developed Country, Ethiopia, which is a Less Developed Country, and China, which is a Newly Industrialised Country. These countries will be analysed in five different parts and an explanation will be provided for each of these indicators. More then three sources have been used to find this information and some of it may be inaccurate.


Human developed Indicators rank Australia 5 Ethiopia 168 China 6 by http//hdr.undp.org shows that countries have already been put into appropriate terms on the countries development.


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Terms


MDC= More Developed Country


LDC= Less Developed Country


NIC= Newly Industrialised Country


Economic Growth


Ref as Table 1


Australia Ethiopia China


GDP growth rate % .% 7.% 7.%


GDP 68.6 b 6.4 b 1. t


GNI per Capita 1,770 100 80


Exports $68.8 b 44m 6.1b


Services % to GDP 6. 6.5 0.


Agriculture added to % GDP . 5. 1.1


Industrial added to % GDP 6.8 11.1 50.0


Exports of goods and services% 0.1 15.8 .1


Imports goods and services % 1.0 4. 18.1


Indicators Bibliography


As the three countries show, these indicators prove that in Ethiopia and China that there is rapid growth especially in the Chinese embassy where the GDP is 1. Trillion. However, this GDP is not evenly distributed in China as Australia is. For $68.6 b and the distribution of $1,770 shows the advantages of a more ‘evenly’ distributed income flow in Australia. Also, it shows that Ethiopia shares more of its GDP as it only makes about $6.4b of it and $100 is a more even amount then the 1. Trillion for $80 each. Also, as can be seen, the countries creation of GDP varies greatly, in Australia, its GDP is more evenly created besides from agriculture. As can be seen in Ethiopia, they still concentrate more then half of their GDP products into Agriculture neglecting the other percentages into small groups. China, as it has begun industrialising has concentrated more on industrial production and also leaving limited space for the others. So, Australia could sum as a country in which is a even type economy, Ethiopia concentrates on raw materials and are primary producers whereas China is more of a secondary industry with raw materials.


Employment and Unemployment


Ref as Table


Australia Ethiopia China


Unemployment 6.7% 50% 10%


Workforce 15 and up .m N/A 706m


Population total 1.4 m 65.8 m 1. b


Indicators Bibliography


As can be seen here, the workforces of the three countries vary greatly. Shown in the figures of employment, Australia has a low unemployment rate which China has a low unemployment rate as well (however with a big population, it is a higher unemployment then can be thought), and Ethiopia’s unemployment is very high. China has a good record as it only has 10% unemployment for a greater population of 1. billion whereas Ethiopia is struggling with employment because of its lack of jobs and its main concentration in the agricultural from the table 1, which shows that there are not enough jobs.


Quality of life


Ref as Table


Australia Ethiopia China


Mortality rate p/1000 infant 5. 8.0 .0


Life expectancy 80 44.1 71.86


Literacy 100 5.5 81.5


Malnutrition prevalence % 1 N/A 10.0


Urban Population 1.1 15. 6.7


Population below Poverty 1 64 10


Fresh water resource per capita 18,50.5 1,710.8 ,41.


Personal computers per 1000 464.6 0. 15.


Indicators Bibliography


The quality of life between the countries can be examined as a very good quality of life, an average quality of life and an extremely poor quality of life. The quality of life as can be seen for Australia is that they receive much more water resources then any of the other countries do however Australia does have a smaller population to handle therefore it is not difficult to support the country. As also can be seen, to survive in the three countries when birth takes place, or infant mortality rate, shows that Australia is a very efficient country when it comes to helping children survive. China is second however still needing a little more improvement but the worst of all is Ethiopia’s infant mortality rate of 10% showing much needed development in health, which adds on that Ethiopia’s life expectancy is 44.1 years. The standard means of living also in the world would mean wealth as well in knowledge and assets. Seen on the table, literacy is the most important means of knowledge in order to learn, which shows Australians reading 100% and with China nearly reaching maximum literacy. Whereas Ethiopia is still struggling to even reach half the population literacy. For countries technological advancement, the percentage of people living in urban areas is starting to be a much greater trend for countries, like Australia, which does not have much GDP% in agriculture as countries such as Ethiopia, has agriculture of over 50%. Whereas, China is starting to improve in their industries and becoming less and less dependent on agriculture, which is encouraging, more urban population build up.


One of the greatest living standards acceptable now is the being an owner of a computer and has enough electricity to run it, which shows that Australia has over 464, 600 people owning a computer in Australia, as well as urban, China is also having a small increase and Ethiopia practically owns less then 1% of computers.


This shows that Australia’s standard of living is the best, China is a country, which strives on improvement as an NIC, and Ethiopia is very well behind either these two countries.


Environmental Quality


Ref as Table 4


Australia Ethiopia China


Annual Deforestation 0.0 0.8 -1.


CO emissions metric tons p. capita 17.1 0.0 .07


Energy use per capita (oil p kg) 5640.5 8.1 0.


Electricity use per capita (kwh) 80. . 701.8


Improved water source % 100 4.0 75.0


Indicators Bibliography


The above table shows that one country causes most environmental damage and the other two countries Ethiopia and China are more environmentally protected. It can be observed per capita that Australia exceeds in polluting the world with more CO per metric tons per capita, Energy use per capita and electricity use per capita. This shows that although Australia is a more developed country it is also a country which releases much more then a 100% over each country per capita in pollution. However, population wise the figures overall for use of energy could be calculated for Australia 51,8,600,000 (oil p kg) and China 1,174,0,000,000 (oil p kg) (eg, Aus 1. m x 5640.5). Showing that individually that MDC’s consume more but that the Chinese population consumes alot more overall. However, a more healthy side to the quality of life is of the improved water source, which enables people access to fresh water and for sea animals in general. Australia’s water source is the best with 100% followed up closely by China with 75% whereas Ethiopia’s water source is terrible with only 4% fresh water resource.


The role of Government in Health Care, Education and Welfare Payments.


Ref as Table 5


Australia Ethiopia China


Total Health Expenditure per capita ,1 17 05


Total health expenditure GDP % 8. 4.6 5.


Malnutrition prevalence %u5 0 N/A 10.0


Overall Budget Balance 64.1 b 1. b 11.8 b


Budget Expenditure 84.1 b 1. b 11.8 b


Military % 1.6 .5


% Gov expenditure on education 1.5 1.7 17.0


GDP 68.6 b 6.4 b 1. t


Tax % % 7% 15%


Indicators Bibliography


As can be seen, the countries with more development will have greater access in spending and greater access to improve health and education and the economy. It shows that the government has a huge influence over the economy. Already Australia is able to spend a huge amount per capita on each person for health. It shows that nearly 10% of GDP goes to the economy for health. There is practically no malnutrition in Australia; there is 10% in China however unknown in Ethiopia. As can be seen, it shows of the spending of education in the two economies showing that the Australian and Ethiopian economy is the same whereas the Chinese government is going high to support the growing population. The government in the Ethiopian sector spends over 10% on its GDP on military showing that the country is always under constant struggle against one country/force or trying to keep its political position. Australia and China tend to spend less then 5% however each of these countries GDP is large enough to exceed Ethiopia’s 1% spending. For the governments to support all the above summaries, the taxation needs to be in place to inject into the economy the certain percentages of the GDP. It is seen that the Australian government taxes more then the other two economies, China is in between on 15% and Ethiopia is on a low 7%.


Summary


The three countries analysed are shown to have at least some development from very well developed, newly industrialised or halfway to development and a low developed country. The indicators show that the rank of these countries as either MDC’s, LDC’s or NIC’s is true. Australia is very well developed; China is less developed but soon to reach the phase of an MDC. Ethiopia is an LDC, which may never grow out of its state of poverty.


http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/


http//www.worldbank.org/data/countrydata/countrydata.html


http//www.eldis.org/statistics/ = the site of all statistic sites


http//hdr.undp.org/reports/global/00/en/indicator/indicator.cfm?File=cty_f_CHN.html


http//www.who.int/research/en/


http//www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/471ad445ff145ca5680001af/0fc778fc74fcca56ad00040c5!OpenDocument


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Puss N Boots

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Perrault’s fairytale “Master Cat, or Puss in Boots” deals with the initial difficulty of a young boy who meets his independence for the first time when his father, a poor Miller, dies. The only estate that is left to him is a cat. Through the cat’s action, the boy is brought through to the transformation of the hero. In Grimm’s fairy tale “Hansel and Grethel”, two orphan children are left on a quest for survival because their father and stepmother abandoned them in the forest. Together both children, through their survival strategies, transform into the heroes of the story. The social roles that constrain both the young boy and Hansel and Grethel are Family, Class and child-like state of being. Moreover, the social roles that connect the young boy to Hansel and Grethel posit a value in establishing the thematic meaning of coming of age within the short stories.


CLASS


The young boy in “Master Cat” is trapped and defined by his lower-class socioeconomic status. When his father, a poor miller dies, he is left nothing but a cat. Through the loss of the family, this demonstrates that the boy suffers the knowledge needed to survive, especially at such a young age. Fending for himself, the boy thinks that he should eat his cat for survival. “But for my part, when I have eaten up my cat, and made me a muff of his skin, I must die with hunger” (11). This statement by the boy reinforces the fact of his naivet� to the outside world. It also says that he realizes his poor status and thinks that his short coming of survival for he has no other means. In similarity to the young boy, Grethel at one point says to Hansel ‘it is all over for us” (4) With their father who struggles with work and responsibility the children are left to starve in a forest since he cannot provide enough food for them. The similarities between the two stories show that the children are trying to survive by their own wits. In the “Master Cat” the boy uses the cats trickery and in “Hansel and Grethel”, the children outsmart the witch.


FAMILY


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• Through the abandonment of the family, both Hansel and Grethel and the young boy are left to survive on their own.


• In Hansel and Grethel, the father is weak but loves the children. The step-mother is very evil and wants to abandon the children due to the poorness they have encountered.


• The children are left vulnerable but the initiation of action comes from Hansel, who becomes the father figure that is missing in this fairy tale. Just as the cat takes on the role in Puss ( Male dominant role)


• Hansel takes on the work and responsibly of survival for him and his sister.


• The young boy must show his independence because his father is dead. The young boys independence becomes apparent with the cats strong will to live


• This makes the boy more vulnerable because of his child-like state of being.


WORK/RESPONSIBILITY


• Since the family structure is absent from these childrens lives, they must move away from their child-like sense of play to assume work in order to survive. PLAY IS MAKE BELIEVE; AND THIS IS REAL LIFE FOR THEM….THIS IS WORK FOR LIFE, FOR SURVIVAL


• In Hansel and Grethel, Hansel takes on the traditional role and becomes the father figure. This is evident the responsibility is eveident when he doesn’t give up….when…………………………………………………………………………..


• In “Master Cat”, the cat assumes the responsibility to help the young boy prosper. This is evident when……………………………………………………………………….


• Through struggle and endurance both Hansel and Grethel are able to survive. GIVE CONCRETE EXAMPLES


CHILD INTELLIGENCE


Hansel is underestimated when he looks back on the house so that he can create a path to follow. His tricks his stepmother into believing he was looking at a cat, meanwhile he was creating a path


• “Of course Hansel had not been looking at his kitten, but had been taking every now and then a flint from his pocket and dropping it on the road”(44) This is repeateD two times when the evil stepmother underestimates him. Hansel is adaptable and uses another trickery story. This is also present when the cat in “Puss in Boots” tricks the KING into believIng that the once poor boy, has……………….


COMING OF AGE


The children in both of these short stories become no longer vulnerable. They are able to care for themselves. Through the anxiety and fear created in their lives, the children are able to gain strength as time goes on HOW? BE SPECIFIC


The above components are a strong indicator that the children no longer needed to rely on the parenting figure for their existence. The children had learnED to become independant.changes that provoked anxiety and fear ended up good fortune is possible. Through the cat, the young boy was able to break free of the social roles that constrained him. This is similar to hansel nd grethel who were trapped and defined by the social roles placed upon them. In the end, both of these fairy tales concluded with heroes


WHAT IS A HERO? Spelling needs lots of checking.





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