Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid

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PLANNING


AIM


To find if changing changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when marble is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. With the equation CaCO + HCl CaCl +HO + CO


HYPOTHESES


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A reaction occurs when particles collide. This process is based on random particle movement. so therefore, the more particles you have in a space, the more likely they are to collide. Therefore making the reaction accelerate.


This theory can be proved if you compare the rates of reaction with marble in hydrochloric acid. If the acid is of a higher concentration, the reaction will be quicker..


Also if the particles have more energy, they will be travelling faster, making them collide more frequently.


PREDICTION


When the concentration of acid increases, more gas will be given off faster. I know this from my trial experiments.


METHOD


Since I will be working with strong acid, I will wear safety goggles while conducting the experiment.


I will use Marble chips all of a small size. I can use a sieve to make sure they are all roughly similar size- about 7mm diameter.


The amount of acid I have decided on is 10ml. And so the amount of marble must be in excess - g.


I can measure the speed of the reaction by how much gas is given off. I can measure this in cm in a gas syringe. when the experiment takes place, I will take the reading every 10 second to get a good graph for the results. If the reaction goes very quickly, I will take the readings every five seconds.


I will use acid of 0.5, 1, , , and 4 molar concentrations. SInce I only have acess to acid of 1, and 4 molar concentrations, I will have to dilute some acids with de-ionised water to produce 0.5 and molar concentration acid.


To be sure I can rely on my results I will repeat he experiment twice or three times if necessary, because there is chance of inaccurate results for many reasons.


I learnt from the trial experiments that it is quite hard to start a stopwatch, pour acid and stick a bung into a boiling tube all at the same time, so I will get someone to assist me while doing so.


If the experiment goes on for a ridiculous time, I will cut it off. I dont think it is necessary to have the experiment go over three minutes, so I will cut it off then. Also, if the amount of gas goes off the scale I will stop it there.


It is important to keep the starting temperatures constant for all the reactions as this can affect the results by giving the particles more energy (and making it faster).


Analysis of Results.


From the experiment, I have found that an increased concentration of acid increases the rate of the reaction.


I think that the best way of displaying these results is by drawing a line graph. In it, I have used the average of the two sets of results. The pattern I can see is that when the reaction first starts, the reaction is fastest, from then on, the reaction slows. We can see this because the gradient of the curve is steepest at the beginning.


The cause of this curve is that at the start of the reaction, there is the most ammount of acid molecules that are colliding with the marble. (I can draw this from my initial hypothesis)


OBTAINING EVIDENCE


TABLE of RESULTS


Concentrration of Acid. time 10 0 0 40 50 60 70 80


0.5 15 0 5 8 0 4 6 7 8


0.5 14 8 8 41 44 47 48 50


1 8 48 58 67 7 8 7 100 105


1 0 40 54 64 7 81 86 10


40 60 76 0 100


8 55 74 8 100


0 44 70 85 110


0 6 0 110


4 7 115


4 0 65 87 110


During the experiment, I kept the starting temperature constant at degrees.


I stop watch to time the experiment.


I wore safety glasses.


Time is in seconds. Concentration is in molarity..


I repeated the experiment twice to make sur my results were reliable.





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