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Tunics of the Eye

1. Fibrous � outer protection and support. (cornea and sclera ᠖ white shit of eye)

a) cornea

• makes up the anterior 1/ of the eye

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• for light refraction or light bending and its non elastic

• only organ transplanted from one individual to another without rejection

• lots of collagen fibers

b) sclera

• makes up the posterior / of the eye/tunic

• it is non-elastic also

• anchors extrinsic eye muscles LR6[SO4]

• the optic nerve, CN II , pierces the sclera which causes a blind spot known as the optic disc

• maintains shape of eyeball because of the vitreous humor. The cornea and lens are part of refraction, but the lens is not a tunic. The lens is elastic and can change. The cornea is non elastic. The cornea is the most important when dealing with refraction.

• anterior part of eye deals with HO secretion

posterior part of eye  has a gel like substance known as the vitreous humor which gives the eyeball its shape

. vascular �anoterh name is UVEA, middle layer

• lens is avascular and is not part of any tunic even though it is involved with refraction

• the iris is part of the vascular tunic it allows for diffusion

a) choroid � contains malnocytes and serves to absorb light and prevent light from scattering with in the eye ball itself

b) cilliary muscle body � continuation of choroid made of smooth muscle attaches to suspensory ligaments and to the lens

c) iris � is a continuation of the cilliary body/ cilliary muscle. It encircles the lens.

1. visible colored portion of our eye

. allows for process of diffusion of O and nutrients in monomer units, glucose, amino acids to enter lens

d) pupil � allows light to enter lens

. sensory (neural component)

• neural tunic, has photoreceptors rods and cones, has macula lutea and fovea centralis

• it involves photoreceptors rods and cones

• optic disc � blind spot (part where optic nerve pierces sclera, no photo receptors are found here)

• macula lutea � found lateral to the optic disc and are oval in structure; fovea centralis lies here

• fovea centralis � pinpoint structure of the macula lutea, contains cones only (no rods) greatest point of central vision, or visual acuity (color vision, central vision, bright light)


Rods Cones

1. More numerous than cones but less specialized 1. Less in number than rods but more specialized

. dim light � more active, functional in establishing peripheral vision and black and white . Function best in bright light involves with central vision (visual acuity) distinguish color

Cilliary muscle/ cilliary body � really different types of muscles

1. radial muscle � (longitudinal), important in distinguish dim light

. circular muscle � cones, color, central vision, close vision

Light Adaptation vs. Dark adaptation

1. Light adaptation � it is what happens to photoreceptors as you go from a dark room to a light room. Occurs very fast 5- 10 minutes, cones are more active and the rods are inactivated.

. Dark adaptation � it is what happens when you go from a light room to a dark room, this occurs more slowly, about 0 minutes. The rods become active and the cones become inactivated

• Visual acuity/central vision improves as you go from dark to light room but from light  dark peripheral vision improves. Rods become activated, less specialized so it takes longer.

Color blindness � genetic predisposition problem with hereditary; sex linked characteristic, found more so in males; problem between red and green. Chris Storms

Night blindness � nyctolopia, prolonged deficiency in vitamin A, rods themselves cause rod degeneration

Homeostatic Imbalances of the Eye

1. emmetriopia � normal vision

. myopia � nearsighted, image converge in front of retina instead of striking the retina, problem is fixed using a concave lens

. hyperopia � farsightedness, image converges behind retina instead of striking retina, problem is fixed using a convex lens

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