Global Issues

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Thursday, July 1, 00


WAR IN IRAQ


The war in Iraq was declared to be over several months ago. The troops are still hunting Saddam Husein and never seem to be in the same area as he is. He always seems to get away and to know how close the troops are to him. They have killed his two sons and the President of the United States is not even raising our terror alert. President Bush stated to day in a news conference “that the risk for a terror attack as retaliation in the killing of Saddam’s sons is very high but we are not raising the terror alert. Security at all airports will increase and everyone will be on guard. We are asking passengers, flight attendants and pilots to be aware of any out of the ordinary behavior.”


Saddam Husein is a mad man. The man who turned in his sons for $0 million dollars is part of his r�gime. What are they thinking handing that kind of money over to them? Why don’t we just send our people over there to help them build their weapons of mass destruction? I feel that we are just asking for another attack on our soil. We are free, but if Saddam has his way we are going to pay for everything that has happened over there.


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We are spending the money to rebuild their homes, schools, religious temples, and stores, ect. Who is going to help us rebuild when something happens here? We will just be left to fend for ourselves. I did not see any of his people offer to help us on September 11. They say he had nothing to do with it, that it was all Bin Lauden, but I feel they are connected and Saddam knew exactly what was going to happen.


Now we have troops over their “helping them” and risking their lives everyday. Gunfire, grenades, bombs, and anything else that can be used to kill them ambush them. All of this over a country who said it wanted to be free from Saddam and they are killing the people who are trying to free them. Some of the shooters are even children as young as 10 years old. Ten years old and they already know how to kill. Is that really a country that deserves freedom? A country that teaches children that kill is all right. This is the kind of country that our tax dollars and social security fund is paying for to be rebuilt.


This war started out as a hunt for Bin Lauden, know all the sudden we have forgotten about him and all concentration is on finding Saddam. We turn our back on this extremely dangerous man and he will strike again. If we would have given up after Desert Storm and just went in and killed Saddam none of this would be necessary.


The war in Iraq is considered over by the President, but it is far from over as long as we have troops dying everyday. The death toll keeps rising and yet these brave men and women’s lives are worth staying in a country that is trying to kill them. I don’t think so and I’m sure every one of their family members feels the same way.





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planning by leading

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Planning by Leading


The purpose of this paper is to discuss the organization function of business management as it relates to integration of new technology. There are many companies that outsource the IT aspect of integration and many more that integrate it themselves. I will look at Microsoft and Wal-Mart because both of these companies integrate their technology themselves and they have done so successfully. of at how organizations integrate new technology gain insight into the planning function of business management by examining one of the top CEOs in America and applying this insight to my organization. It takes a great leader to turn a company around and Gillette has found one in Jim Kitts. It is the first time since 11 that Gillette has gone outside the company to look for a leader. Jim Kilts has now been the CEO of Gillette for two years. Prior to becoming the CEO of Gillette, he successfully turned Kraft and Nabisco around and made both companies much more competitive and viable. Jim Kilts’ vision and discipline of where Gillette is going can be applied to any company.


Before Kilts took over the reins of Gillette, Gillette had missed its earnings in 14 consecutive quarters. Most recently however, Gillette’s sales have risen five percent the last three quarters. How can one person make such an impact on a company?


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When colleagues think of Jim Kilts, words such as disciplined, demanding, and intense come up over and over again. (Fortune.com). These traits are traits that many CEOs share. When planning the future of where a company is going, a CEO has to be involved and in touch with the pulse of the company. An example of this is seen even before Kilts took over as CEO. Prior to the announcement, Kilts had two outside analysts help him go through all the public records related to Gillette. In the interview, he explained why he did this, “I always find that it helps to know what the world thinks of the company before you learn what the company thinks of the company”(Business.com).


Since taking over the helm of Gillette, Kilts has made a lot of changes. When asked if there are more changes to come, he replies, “We’re probably in the fourth inning of a nine-inning game”(Business.com). This is an interesting metaphor and it is easily understandable. Almost everyone can relate to baseball and understand that a nine-inning game is a long game and by stating that Gillette is only in the fourth inning, Kilt is implying that there is a long way to go before his job (the game) is finished. In explaining why Kilts came out of retirement, one of his colleagues says simply He loves to play the game of winning at business (Alternet.org). From these two quotes, a person can see that this man has a passion for business equal to the passion a professional athlete has for his or her sport. Kilt loves what he does and part of what he does is change the direction a company is going or has been going and this is done through his exceptional ability to plan.


The company that I work for was established in 18. The current president and CEO is also the founder of the company. The company started as a one-room operation and has now expanded to eleven states with over 50 employees. This kind of expansion does not happen overnight. It takes planning.


The management style of Jim Kilts is very similar to that of my company’s president. Both are very demanding, disciplined, and intense. These traits are felt throughout the company and the employees know that their best is expected at all times. If an employee “can’t take the heat, then it is time to get out the kitchen.”


These traits help define the successful CEO. They define a person that does not like failing and in order for their companies to be successful, they have to plan for the future. Jim Kilts started planning the future of Gillette before his first day of work by gathering information about Gillette. Information gathering is an integral part of the planning function of management. A company cannot plan successfully if the base of the planning is not strong. A strong base would consist of having complete and accurate information that is necessary to make decisions.


As a Human Resources professional in my company, I can use this insight to help our company plan for the future by researching various programs that would be beneficial to our employees. We keep changing benefit plans every year and we have multiple enrollment periods during the year. I realize this is something that employees do not enjoy. Going forward, I have got to get all of the plan years to begin and end on the same date so next year when we do open enrollment, it will truly be an open enrollment.


Work Cited


Brooker, Katrina. “Jim Kilts Is an Old-School Curmudgeon”. December 17, 00. Accessed June 5, 00. http//www.fortune.com/fortune/ceo/articles/0,15114,400151-,00.html


Hightower, Jim. “Hightower Gillette’s New Boss Hogg” May 8, 001. Accessed June 5, 00. http//www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=10848


Smith, Stephanie; Kilts, Jim. “Resharpened Edge” July 00. Accessed June 5, 00. http//www.business.com/articles/mag/0,1640,50061,00.html


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The meaning of health

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The definitions that people have attributed to health have changed over time and today there are many ways of viewing health, which makes measurement difficult. Health in Western Societies tends to be defined as simply “the absence of illness and disease” because of the dominance of medicine in these societies (Naidoo & Wills, 001). However, this definition has been criticised as being incomplete by many health professionals. The World Health Organisation (WHO) agree that health no longer refers to the mere absence of disease and illness, but it is a dynamic lifelong process in which the physical, mental, social, environmental and spiritual dimensions are considered essential (Donatelle & Davis, 14). Rene Dubos added to this WHO definition of health by stating “Health is a quality of life, involving social, emotional, mental, spiritual and biological fitness on the part of the individual, which results from adaptations to the environment” (Donatelle & Davis, 14).


As a result of these many different dimensions of health in Dubos’ and the WHO definitions, Dubos believed that it is not possible for people to achieve perfect health. To be perfectly healthy in each dimension, people would have to be perfectly adapted to their environment, a situation he believed was unattainable and this is what led him to state that “the concept of perfect and positive health is a utopian creation of the human mind” (180, p.46).


To be perfectly and positively healthy, according to each of the dimensions in the WHO and in Dubos’ definitions of health, we would need to be healthy physically. This includes such characteristics as body size and shape, susceptibility to disease, ability to perform certain tasks, body functioning and sensory acuity (Donatelle & Davis, 14). We also would need to be socially healthy, which refers to our ability to adapt to various social situations and our ability to have satisfying interpersonal relationships. Mentally we would need to be healthy, which would include the ability to learn and perform intellectual abilities. We would need to be emotionally healthy, which refers to our ability to control emotions so that we feel comfortable expressing them when appropriate as well as expressing them appropriately (Donatelle & Davis, 14).


Environmentally we would also need to be healthy. We would need to appreciate our external environment and play a role in preserving, protecting and improving environmental conditions (Donatelle & Davis, 14). Finally, we would need to be spiritually healthy. This refers to a belief in a higher form of living or a specified way of living because of a particular religion (Donatelle & Davis, 14). Spirituality is a sense of unity, meaning and value with nature, others and the environment, which encourages us to care and respect other things (Donatelle & Davis, 14).


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The closer we become to achieving the ideal level of functioning and balance between each of these above dimensions, the closer we are to achieving a high level of health (Donatelle & Davis, 14). Basically, the closer people get to their potential in Dubos’ five dimensions of health, the more healthy they will be (Dubos, 180). People with an illness or disability are usually seriously deficient in one or more of the health dimensions. Dubos emphasised however, that we cannot become balanced at an equal level in all these dimensions. He believes that people in the real world face the physical, biological and social forces of their environment, which are forever changing, usually in an unpredictable manner, and frequently for dangerous consequences for themselves as people and for the human species in general (Dubos, 180). Therefore, the concept of perfect and positive health is not realistic or achievable because of people’s continuously changing environments.


In conclusion, the concept of health has been given a considerable amount of research, which has caused its definition to change dramatically over the years. The multidimensional definitions of health by the WHO and Dubos has altered the concept that some people hold of perfect and positive health. This concept of perfect and positive health cannot become reality because people will never be so adapted to their environment that their lives will not involve struggles, failures and sufferings (Dubos, 180). “Man and his species are in perpetual struggle � with microbes, with incompatible mothers-in-law, with drunken car drivers and with cosmic rays from Outer Space… The ‘positiveness’ of health does not lie in the state, but in the struggle � the effort to reach a goal which in its perfection is unattainable” (Dubos 180, p.4). However, this utopia of positive health, like other ideals, allows people to set goals and helps medical science to chart its course toward these goals (Dubos, 180). Health these days is no longer seen as a state, that can be modified to perfection, but as a process towards the achievement of each person’s potential (Naidoo & Wills, 001).


Donatelle, R. and Davis, L. (14). Promoting your health. Access to health (pp. 1-1, 55). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Prentice Hall.


Dubos, R. (180). Man meets his environment. Man adapting (pp.45-68). New Haven Yale University Press.


Naidoo, J. and Wills, J. (001). Introducing health studies. Health studies An introduction (pp. 1-8). Basingstoke, Hampshire Palgrove.


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gender inequality in australia

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Gender inequality is something that appears to have existed since ancient times and which is still evident in Australian society today. Using the term ‘gender inequality’ often equates to women being disadvantaged in comparison to men. As is well known, traditionally, women were often regarded as inferior to men, a practice which is still witnessed in society today, especially in a society such as Australia which is typically patriarchal, with men most likely to dominate the workforce, the household, and the political system.


Gender is the term used to define the biological differences between men and women from their socially fashioned manifestations described as masculine and feminine (Van Krieken et al. 000). For example, men are often assumed to be more aggressive and dominant than women, whilst women are expected to be more caring and passive. It has been argued that these stereotypes perpetuate inequalities that disadvantage women in comparison with men, which has led to much study of gender inequality.


The extent to which gender inequality has been, and still is, evident can be studied by examining the areas of gender in the home, in the workforce, and in politics.


Gender inequality in the family has been a topic for debate for many years. In traditional times it was expected that a woman would remain home and ‘keep the home-fires burning’ whilst the husband had the role of being the breadwinner of the family. It was expected that a woman’s priorities would be her home, her children and her husband’s career (Western 187), as men were still the dominant partner in marriages, and retained a degree of ultimate power and authority in family decision-making, and in the organisation of family activities (Graetz & McAllister 14). Also, when a man and woman were married, any rights the woman possessed as an individual were given to her husband when she became his wife (Western 187). Women were not expected to gain any further education or to show an interest in becoming part of the work force for a living, and if they did, there were very limited options, some of which will be discussed further in this paper.


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In relation to family life today, several of the traditional gender stereotypes remain intact. Many women are still victims of inaccurate gender representations. In the present time, most women are still expected to stay at home and complete household duties and care for children whilst their husbands go to work, and many women still change their surname to that of their husbands when married. Although the situation has improved significantly, women still experience pressure when they make the choice to return to work rather than raising their children full time, and many men still view house duties as the woman’s domain.


The topic of women in the education system has received much documentation, especially since the mid-170s. In Australia, teacher’s organizations and government and education departments began documenting and comparing the access, participation, retention, and educational experiences and outcomes of girls and boys, and found that “to be a girl was an educational disadvantage” (McLeod 001155). These studies also focused on how the experience at school led to post-school inequalities for girls and women as a group. Evidence of such inequalities was found in girls relatively constrained and stereotypical opportunities for work and further study (McLeod 001).


The position of women in the workforce has also made for significant disadvantage for females. Despite the significant progress of the last century in relation to equal rights for women at work, inequality for women in comparison to men in the workforce still exists today. Although not nearly to such an extent as there would have been fifty years ago, Australian women are still relatively disadvantaged in the workforce.


One major cause for concern is that women in the workforce usually earn less than their male counterparts of the same profession. Prior to World War , Australian women earned a mere 54% of the male rate of pay, and by 16 this amount had only risen to 75% (Van Krieken et al. 000). Despite the introduction of the “equal pay for equal work” principle in 16, which became fully operational by 17, 0 years later women, on average, still earn less than men, and there are less women in the workforce in comparison to men(Van Krieken et al. 000, Healey 001). In 181 a woman’s average weekly full time earnings were 76.4% of male earnings, and had only risen to be 81.8% of the male income by 18 (Healey 001), demonstrating that even in relatively recent times women were still earning significantly less than men, despite being employed in the same profession. This can be illustrated by the fact that a female accountant earns only $4,146 per annum, in comparison to a males wage of $61, 68 (Healey 0011), and that a female branch manager earns only $5,87 per annum, whilst men in the same position earn a whopping $8,407 per annum(Healey 0011).


The number of females participating in the workforce has also been a topic for debate. The number of women working has increased from 6% in 166 to 5% in 1 (Van Krieken et al. 000 55). Although the number has increased, it is still relatively small. The unemployment rate is also higher for women than men. More men are employed on a full time basis than women. Healey (0010) states that in 188, .5 percent of men were employed full time and earning at least $1000 a week, whist only 0. percent of women were in the same category. In May 18, the percentage of men in this bracket had increased a great deal to 4.7 percent, where as women only rose to 8. percent (Healey 001).


Women remain concentrated in casual or part time employment, and are underrepresented in management and administrative positions and in trade and related areas of work (McLeod 001). In 1 it was found that women made up 4 percent of the entire work force, however, they only held percent of the top positions (Uren 1), demonstrating that males do indeed still dominate the workforce.


There is also a distinct division in the labour market. The dual labour market theory argues that the labour market is structured to have two sectors primary and secondary. The secondary labour market has low pay, few prospects for career advancement, little trade union protection, poor job security and no fringe benefits (Waters & Crook, 1 47). Not suprisingly then, exploitation of workers is far greater in the secondary sector. Whilst the majority of men are employed in the primary sector, women, especially those of the working class, find they are unable to compete in the primary sector, and are consigned to the secondary sector. Women are usually found to be in the lowest reaches of an occupational structure (Waters & Crook 1), for example, the head of a school is often a male.


A distinction can also be made between the masculinity and femininity of jobs, which is an extension of domestic differences into the occupational structure. For example, in office work there has traditionally been a separation between the masculine managerial domain and the feminine secretarial domain, and there is little, if any, mobility between the two.


A further area in which inequalities between men and women exist is that of politics. It is clear there is a reasonably low level of participation by women in political life. Although numbers of women in parliament are increasing, they are still relatively small. In 180, 6% of local government representatives were women, compared with 10, of which 1% of elected federal parliamentarians were women (Waters & Crook, 1 50). Traditionally it was thought that women were apolitical, however this is far from true. The small numbers of women in parliament is partly due to their duties in the domestic sphere.


Political parties select candidates on the basis of two main qualities their capacity to represent a party branch, and their appeal to voters. Both of these qualities work to disadvantage female candidates, as party branches are dominated by men, and women are often believed to lack voter appeal. The relationship between gender and the state is not only that of participation, but also of the government, the regulation and coordination of individual behaviour (Graetz & McAllister, 1 71). Australian governments have been, and to a point still are, unwilling to interfere with established domestic relations.


Policies relating to gender have changed considerably since the 1th century. Some examples of this are the increased ease of divorce and financial provision of non-wage-earners, and the decriminalisation of contraception and abortion under most circumstances. The main areas of legislation in relation to gender differences have been welfare, income equality (which can ensure equal pay but not equal earnings), and equal opportunity.


There have been many theories offered in order to try explaining why gender differences and inequalities exist and why they continue to prevail.


Liberal feminism is another strain of thought regarding why the oppression of women exists in our society. Liberal feminists believe it is unjust for any inequality to exist between men and women, and they also believe it is possible to maintain a capitalist society such as Australia’s as well as having gender equality. They explain gender inequality in terms of society’s beliefs, culture and attitudes. This form of feminism generally relies on the concept of gender roles � that males and females act out gender roles socially defined according to their sex either masculine or feminine (van Krieken et al., 000). “Socialisation into gender roles produces stereotyped, inflexible expectations of men and women” (van Krieken et al., 000 658). Socialisation agencies reinforce gender role stereotypes in our society, therefore continuing to perpetuate gender inequality. Agencies such as the family, the education system and the media continue to reinforce behaviour that is either typically male or female. Children are born into a world filled with gender stereotypes which influence them from an early age, and which they see as natural. For example, boys are typically dressed in blue and girls in pink, and boys are encouraged to behave in a “masculine” manner as girls are expected to behave in a “feminine” manner. Teachers accept that boys are more boisterous and allow them exceptions for this. All forms of media, including text books often portray common gender representations and display stereotyped images in advertisements such as the mother cooking in the kitchen and the father at work. These kinds of stereotypes all contribute to the attitudes and beliefs of society regarding the role of women and men.


This is one of the few theories which I believe best describes the reasons for the gender inequality witnessed in society and its continuous reproduction. Human behaviour is a product of what we learn from our surroundings and so the gender stereotypes that exist in our culture are what we learn to accept and pass on to the next generation. Looking at evidence from other cultures, it can be proved that masculinity and femininity are socially derived (Van Krieken et al., 000), and therefore we can conclude that beliefs such as males being more aggressive and females more passive, are indeed learned rather than inherited or a natural occurrence.


Although the place of women in society has indeed improved since the rise of the women’s movement in the 160’s and 170’s, much of the inequality between men and women still exists in Australian society today. Although not nearly as prevalent, gender inequality is still evident in family life, the workforce, and the political system. Whilst there are many theories that have been suggested as the explanation for gender inequality, none, to this day, have successfully completed their aim of abolishing the issue. Unless the prevalent views about gender roles in society are challenged and further changed, we face a future of the reproduction of such roles.


References


Graetz, B., and McAllister, I. (14) Dimensions of Australian Society (nd ed.). South Melbourne McMillan Education.


Van Krieken, R., Smith, P., Habibis, D., McDonald, K., Haralambos, M. and Holmborn, M. (000) Sociology Themes and Perspectives (nd ed.). Frenchs Forest NSW Pearson Education Australia.


Waters, M. and Crook, R. (1) Sociology One Principles of Sociological Analysis for Australians (rd ed.). Melbourne Longman Cheshire.


Western, J. (187) Social Inequality in Australian Society. South Melbourne MacMillan Education.


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two part tariff

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Two part Water Tariffs


The operation of Chapter 10 of the Local Government Act 1 (“LGA”) was considered by the Supreme Court of Queensland in the recent case of Hume Doors an Timber (Qld) Pty Ltd v Logan City Council (“Hume Doors”).


Chapter 10 of the LGA was introduced in 17 to give effect to the COAG water resource policy regarding the urban water services of the 17 largest local governments in Queensland.


The regime established by Chapter 10 requires local governments


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· To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing two part water tariffs for water services;


· To decide whether two part tariffs are to be applied for water services;


· If it is decided to apply a two part tariffs - to implement that decision;


· To ensure that charges for water services are based upon consumption.


Implementing a two part tariff


Logan City Council sought to apply a two part water tariff for the 18/1 financial year in accordance with Chapter 10 of the LGA. In doing so, the water tariff adopted by the council provided for


· A differential access charge, based upon meter size;


· A differential consumption charge based upon volume consumed.


Hume Doors found that the water charges for its Logan premises increased significantly under the new tariff and subsequently sought declarations in the Supreme Court of Queensland that the tariff was unlawful on the basis that the Council had failed to comply with the requirements of Chapter 10 of the LGA.


Water charges held invalid


The Supreme Court found that the water access charges contained in the Logan City Councils 18/1 budget were invalid for failing to comply with Chapter 10 of the LGA.


Significantly, a primary reason for the result was the finding that the Councils water access charges did not answer the statutory description of a two part tariff for the purposes of chapter 10 of the LGA.


The LGA provides that a two part tariff is a basis for a utility charge for water services consisting of access and consumption components. Although chapter 10 of the LGA, at sections 76 and 78 requires consumption to be the basis for utility charges for water services, the local government finance standard provides that a utility charge for water may include an access amount.


The reasons for judgment in the Hume Doors case indicate that the Court found difficulty reconciling the requirement that consumption be the basis of water charges with the provision of a separate access component in the tariff.


A two part tariff, as contemplated by chapter 10 of the LGA, was said to be a single basis for charging for water services with two components referable to


· Access to the supply network;


· The amount of water consumed.


According to the reasons for judgment, the only manner of satisfying this requirement would be for water charges to provide for a differential rate per unit of water based upon the size of the pipe through which the water was supplied. That is to say, a two part tariff requires that a kilolitre of water consumed through a larger pipe be charged at a different, presumably more expensive, rate than a kilolitre supplied through a smaller pipe.


Chapter 10 of the LGA was introduced to achieve efficiency and sustainability in the use of water and to promote full-cost pricing for urban water services.





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Hamlet: To Be or Not to Be

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To be or not to be, is that the question?


To be or not to be, is that the question? Or would it be better expressed, to live or not to live? Death and vengeance is a major theme in Hamlet, a theme that is worthy to be explored.


First, the id�e fix with suicide or self murder; and then with murder, whether justified or not, of others.


Hamlet was the first to contemplate suicide. In one of his first soliloquies, Act I, scene ii, lines 1-158, Hamlet speaks these lines after an encounter with Claudius and Gertrude who wish for him to lay aside his mourning and also, not to return to Wittenburg


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“O, that this too too sullied flesh to melt,


Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!


Or that the Everlasting had not fix’d


His canon ‘gainst self-slaughter!


How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable,


Seem to me all the uses of this world!


Imagine the sorrow Hamlet was feeling. Even though Hamlet was a man, he was never in the position that he had to take on the role of a man. For the most part, Hamlet was carefree, and intellect, a man of privilege (being the son of the king), and without much responsibility. He wasn’t married, nor was he even responsible for picking his own bride. Hamlet took the death of his father very hard. One could imagine that he had a good relationship with his father, but that is left to be assumed. Hamlet seemed to idealize his father, as in Act III, scene iv, lines 54-68. With the premature death of his father and his inability to return to Wittenberg, Hamlet is depressed. The hasty marriage of his mother to his Uncle Claudius, of course, does not help matters. Hamlet’s depression and confusion becomes more complicated once Hamlet discovers that the death of his father was done by the hands of Claudius.


After Hamlet discovers the murder of his father, he, in another soliloquy, contemplates suicide again Act III, scene i, lines 58-0. His question “to be or not to be”, that is to live or not to live. He weighs the burden of living and dying. Is it nobler to suffer life’s, “slings and arrows of outrageous fortunes” passively or to actively seek to end ones suffering? He sees death and sleep as a means to end suffering and pain, and yet, the fear of the unknown is more foreboding to him than knowing his present.


One of the ironies in this play is that while Hamlet contemplated suicide/death, Ophelia took that step into the “undiscovered country”. She is found to be drowned and the question of whether she ended her own life or whether it was truly an accident is not deliberated. With her state of mind it could be easily justified that the burden of living without the men that she loved might have been far too great for her mind bare the men being her father, Hamlet and Laertes who was not at home.


“Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord”, Deuteronomy 5. Hamlet debated the spiritual application of suicide and to some degree, if he should kill Claudius and when not to kill Claudius. However, he neglected this very important verse in the Bible, a verse that would have given him some peace and released him from the duty of vengeance. The peace that Hamlet and the ghost of Hamlet’s father desired could only be attained by the physical death of Claudius by Hamlet’s hands the old “eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” philosophy.


Vengeance and family honor are main themes in Hamlet, with family honor being the more prominent. While attempting to maintain the family honor, vengeance most certainly is the means of achieving that end. Fortinbras’s father was defeated in battle by the late King Hamlet. Fortinbras’s plan to take back the lands and power is a means of avenging and maintaining family honor. (He plans to attack Denmark.) Claudius sends out the couriers, Cornelius and Voltimand, with a proposal that will satisfy the need to restore family honor, and hopefully this will dissolve his need vengeance and avoid further conflict.


Next, consider Hamlet and his father. The ghost beseeches Hamlet to avenge his murder by killing Claudius. Hamlet is slow with fulfilling the ghost’s request and his dutiful need. He is lost in indecision and lacks the ability to act quickly, or possibly the courage to act.


He could have killed Claudius at any moment in time. The unspoken law seemed to allow a justified killing as a means of avenging a wrongful death. But, Hamlet was the only one who knew that Claudius killed King Hamlet, (Act I, scene V, lines 11-10). He did not tell Bernardo or Francisco or even Horatio of what the apparition had revealed. So would the killing of Claudius be viewed as justified, or a murder committed by an insane, jealous son of the late King? Would Hamlet then be tried for murder of a King or locked up in the asylum for the rest of his days?


The ideal time to murder, one would hypothesize, is when the anger and rage would be the greatest in Hamlet; it would be understandable after learning how and who killed his father, or after the wrongful death of Polonius, or even after the death of Ophelia. Hamlet eventually does kill Claudius, and it is after the moment of great revelation and anger learning that Claudius plotted to kill him and the death of his beloved mother.


Laertes is the third son to avenge a father, but he, too, causes great destruction. He, as does Hamlet, does not immediately react, but, Laertes becomes a cohort of the evil king. Laertes is not only responsible for the death of Hamlet, but, also for his own death in the end. Ultimately, Laertes and Hamlet ask forgiveness from each other, thus freeing Laertes from questionable eternal damnation or at least from maybe this sin will not be counted. Laertes and Hamlet fix themselves on murder as the only means of revenge and this ultimately becomes their own demise.


Hamlet is play of multiple, interrelated tragedies, with many attempting to regain the honor of their family; and yet in the end the families are dissolved, and honor is but a fantasy. The mystery of the death yet to come and the tragedy of life left to live is left unresolved as “the undiscovered country, from whose bourn no traveler return” (Act III, scene i, lines 58-0). So for Hamlet, is the question still “to be or not to be”? Revenge can no longer be sought for the dead, as all the logical seekers are dead, and those at whom revenge was aimed, are also dead. The only vengeance that is left to be taken will be determined at the judgment of their souls by God.





References


The Bible, New American Standard Version (p.158). Anaheim, California Foundation Publication.


Charters, Ann, & Charters, Samuel (001). Literature and its Writers, an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston, New York Bedford/St. Martins.





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Disclosure Principles

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Disclosure of Financial Information





Publicly traded companies should have an obligation to disclose monthly sales reports to the financial press. Sales-R-Us is not an exception. It is in Sales-R-Us’s best interest to preserve active and direct communication with the financial press, shareholders, and potential investors regarding Sales-R-Us’s historical performance and future opportunities. Sales-R-Us can increase shareholder value by publicly outlining its strategies, strengths, and growth prospects. In addition to the requisite quarterly reports that must be filed, Sales-R-Us should disclose monthly sales reports that clearly explain operating revenues and expenses. Financial analysts and investors can use this information to make educated quarterly forecasts of the firm, its growth prospects, and understand more about a company they may possibly invest in.


Obviously disclosure is a double-edged sword. If a company’s sales and profits are robust, a likely effect will be in an increase in stock price and value of the firm. If earnings and growth lag, stock prices may drop and investors may think twice about investing. However, the lifeblood of a public company is the stockholder. For example, if one does not disclose sales reports, the public may assume that there may be something to hide. The company’s responsibility is to increase stockholder value by demonstrating sound business decisions, current position in the financial market, and its growth potential in a truthful manner. There is no one “golden” number that tells us whether to invest or sell. Each investor and analyst has his/her own method. It is Sales-R-Us’s responsibility to honestly disclose all pertinent information for individuals to make their own informed opinion regarding the value of Sales-R-Us. Retail companies tend to have stronger fourth quarters because of the holiday season. Monthly reports will describe a firm’s growth on a consistent basis within each quarter. Analysts and investors can compare Sales-R-Us to competitors and the industry. One way to disclose their monthly report is to release an industry-wide report comparing itself with other firms and the industry standard for that given period. This would help if there was a industry-wide acceptance of disclosure.


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Some may say the cost of reporting sales figures on a monthly basis may have some drawbacks. They will argue that competitors who don’t release their figures may have an unfair competitive accessing Sales-R-Us’s figures. Others may argue that supplying sales figures on a monthly basis will be costly. Sales-R-Us can avoid costs by releasing financial figures through their website or through one media source. With the proliferation of the internet, information will spread rapidly throughout the world.


I feel the benefits of releasing information far outweigh the costs. By disclosing monthly sales reports, companies will have even more incentive to find ways to increase sales, earnings, and growth. It is important that Sales-R-Us discloses their information so they can gain investor’s trust and push themselves to be the best firm possible.





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change

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English Essay- Change occurs for many different reasons


In one moment, a life can be changed forever. Change occurs in many different ways, and for many different reasons. Change is inevitable. In the film ‘Girl Interrupted’ Susannah Kayson has the inability to deal with change, and the inability to control her life, which results in her being placed in a mental home, after she chased a bottle of vodka, with a bottle of aspirin. Change for Susannah brought betrayal, suicide and uncertainty in life. Susannah changes her perspective on death, when a girl from the mental home commits suicide. She expresses her changes attitude towards death, with the very powerful statement “When you don’t want to feel, death can seem like a dream. But seeing death, really seeing it, makes dreaming about it seem fucking ridiculous” When Susannah actually saw death, it made her change, therefore enforcing the statement that change occurs for many reasons, some being good, some being bad.


Change occurs for many different reasons. This statement is also supported by the book “Good girls do swallow”, which was very powerfully written by Rachael Oaks-Ash. This book tells of her plight from near death and back. It tells the reader how she suffered from bulimia, and would have gone to the end of the earth, to shed those unwanted kilos. Rachael’s bulimia is brought on by the early on-set of puberty. It resulted in her putting on extra weight far earlier then the other girls, and she so desperately wanted to fit in, she just starved herself, then went onto a twenty year long ‘diet’, as the result. Rachael was changing, and this is just another case, like Susannah, of having the inability to cope with change.


Change unsettles and disturbs many people, in many different ways. Change can be an extremely good thing, or an extremely bad thing. People react differently to change. Some can, whilst some cant.


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Rachael discovers her ‘good’ change, when she realized “food is not the enemy. Food is not her friend. It is food. Simply, just food. Nothing more, nothing less”. This quote is very powerful, as it expresses to the readers that Rachael has discovered what we have known, from the first page we read of the book. She has been changing through out the entirety of the novel, although has failed to accept it.


The poem writer ’Sylvia Plath’ relates to change, as one of her main focuses in her poems. Her main themes are death, sadness, and her greatly known hatred of her father. In the poem ‘Daddy’, she talks about how she wished she could of killer her father, but he died before she had the chance. She talks about how much she hated him, but didn’t know how to change her life, so that she wasn’t so greatly affected by his presence. Sometimes though, change happens without anyone even knowing about it. She realized that life can go back to the way it was, or something changes so it doesn’t need to. In her case, it was her father’s death.


Change occurs for many different reasons. Some being bad, some being good. People’s attitudes and stratigies for dealing with change, are all different. Change is inevitable, and unalienable. You can be a slave to life’s changes, or you can work to create the changes you desire in life.





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Modern History, Japan, Japanese expansion, Japanese imperialism. Bunkerhunter@yahoo.com.au

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Japan 10-145


By Mark S, Australia, for more quality history essays contact me bunkerhunter@yahoo.com.au


The stage of Japanese Expansion in South East Asia and the Pacific by 14


The 10s were a time of turbulence for the nations of the world, the armies of evil had begun to rise up and create problems. Nations still healing from the wounds of World War One were pursuing an active course of peace whilst struggling to remain neutral in the new situation which faced the world.


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This situation was not unlike the problem America and Britain were facing with Japan. Throughout the 10s, the Japanese government had begun to develop a policy of Japanese expansion in South East Asia in an attempt to gain vital agricultural, economic and oil supplies. Throughout this policy, Japan had practiced brutal tactics to overrun South Eastern Asia such as in Manchuria and China. This created a dilemma for America and Britain as the question of whether or not to intervene in Japanese brutality and expansion was faced. Japanese expansion in South East Asia would eventually end in a war world and a collapse in Japanese militarism before the policy ended.


The idea of Japanese expansionism in South East Asia was not a new policy that came about in the 10s and 10s; in 185 Japan went to war with China for control over Korea in the Sino-Japanese war. The war came to a quick end in 185 with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. China had to make territorial concessions (Taiwan and some islands) and had to pay large indemnities to Japan while Korea became a dominion of Japan.


Another element of Japanese expansionism was revealed during the 105 Russo-Japanese war; a war once again came to a quick end with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth. Formally Russia recognised Japanese Dominance over Korea. Within ten years, Japan had full control over Korea.


Although Japanese expansionism began well before the Manchurian invasion, it was not large enough to cause a problem, as the Japanese were not practising the actively aggressive and brutal tactics evidenced in the period between 10 and 145.


During the 10s, the Japanese were subject to the hardships of the great depression together with a surplus of exports and shrunken markets due to redeveloped European trade links resulting from the treaty of Versailles.


In a climate of growing nationalist fervour and disillusionment over the current state of the economy, a new Emperor succeeded to the throne in 16. On his succession Emperor Hirohito introduced a new policy of reforms, nationalism and Japanese expansionism - his new policy was called Showa or Enlightened Peace.


The entire Japanese people should in planning how the great Japanese empire be reorganised, petition for manifestation of the imperial prerogative establishing a normal opinion in which no dissenting voice is heard by the organisation of a great union of the Japanese people. Thus, by homage to the emperor, a basis for national reorganisation can be set up .


By the end of the 10s the Japanese government was under increasing pressure from Nationalists and Militarists alike to expand their empire in Manchuria and China. This was due to two significant factors. Firstly, the fact that Japan was facing increasing population pressure on a country of small land mass and secondly, as mentioned above, the impact of the Great Depression. In order to resolve its economic problems, Japan had to tap vital mineral, oil, forestry and agricultural resources for export, in an attempt deliver the country from its economic slump. These two factors plus Japanese contempt for China prompted an invasion of Manchuria.


On 18 September 11, a bomb exploded on a section of the South Manchurian railway near Mukden. Japanese forces on service in Manchuria protecting Japanese interests took advantage of the situation by blaming the bomb explosion on Chinese activists. The Japanese army occupied the town of Mukden during the first week of the invasion. By the end of 11, Japan had occupied all of South Manchuria.


Following protests to the League of Nations by China and America about this active act of aggression at the outbreak of Japanese occupation of South Manchuria in September 11, the League of Nations ordered Japan to withdraw from Manchuria. Instead, however, Japan withdrew its membership of the League of Nations in 1.


The situation between Japan and China remained relatively quiet until July 7, 17, when Japanese forces clashed with Chinese forces on the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing. This event would eventually trigger the nd Sino-Japanese War. In August 17, after occupying the Beijing area for less than a month, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai. These events, though, proved insignificant compared to the events that would unfold in the months following. On 14 December, 17, the Chinese province of Nanking was invaded, and for the next eight months the citizens were brutalised by the Japanese forces, enduring rape, murders, torture and other mistreatment. The events of these eight months were later to be known as the Rape of Nanking.


Once again, between 18 and 140, Japan remained stagnant in China, until September, 140 when, succumbing to increasing pressure, the Vichy French government allowed Japan to occupy northern Indochina. By 8 July, 141, Japanese forces occupied both northern and southern Indochina.


On 4 December, 141, the Japanese air force bombed Pearl Harbour in Hawaii an attempt to obliterate Americas pacific naval fleet and thereby destroy American moral. Although this attack was in vain and in fact encouraged America to wage war on Japan, it did not inhibit Japans advance in South East Asia.


For the next ten months Japanese forces continued to slice their way through South East Asia. Countries in south East Asia fell to the Japanese like dominoes. Guam and Solomon Islands were conquered on 10 December, 141, Wake Island on December, Hong Kong on 5 December, the Dutch East Indies on 1 February, 14, Java on 8 March, Bataan and the Philippines on April, Burma on 0 May and finally, Buna and Gona (Northern New Guinea) on July, 14.


Although Japan landed on New Guinea on July, 14, their luck had expired. At the Battle of the Coral Sea on 7 - 8May, 14 an American fleet stopped Japanese forces from advancing towards Port Moresby. This was the first major strategic win in the Pacific for the allies. Japan was also defeated by the American Naval fleet at the Battle for Midway on 4 - 5 June, 14. In the period from September to December 14 whilst once again attempting to take Port Moresby, Japan was also defeated on the Kododa Trail From this point Japan would gradually withdraw back towards the Japanese islands until their defeat in 145.


The strategies used by the allied forces in opposing Japan


Throughout the 10s, America and Britain endeavored to remain neutral at a time of increasingly troubled international relations, particularly with regard to Japan and Germany. This juggling of troublesome international relations with Japan and Germany proved the most difficult for Britain and, in 11, after Japan invaded Manchuria, Britain attempted to solve the Manchurian problem diplomatically rather than aggressively. This was because Britain could not afford to employ aggressive tactics against Japan due to the harsh economic climate of the times and the consequent need for Britain to maintain strong trade ties with Japan as a trading partner.


British and Japanese diplomacy remained fairly quiet throughout the 10s, due to Britains involvement in Europe and the fact that Britain attempted to avoid conflict with Japan. This period of quiet came to an end on 14 July, 140 when, submitting to increasing pressure from the Japanese government, the British closed the Burma Road which they occupied, thus cutting off British supplies to the Chinese nationalist army of the Chang-kaishek.


Between the closure of the Burma road and the commencement of war in the Pacific, relations between Britain and Japan remained shaky, but once again the primary focus of Britain was on its involvement in the war with Nazi Germany.


America on the other hand, pursued a relatively aggressive stance towards Japan in a diplomatic sense, if not militaristically. Throughout the 10s in the United States of America the view was generally held that American involvement in the great war was not justified and would constitute a waste of money and manpower. Sentiment against involvement in another war was widely held amongst American citizens, Congress and the military.


During the 10s when America maintained an Isolationist stance, many neutrality laws were passed effectively isolating America from the disputes of other nations and minimising cash flow to the American armed forces.


By 18, although isolationist sentiment in America was strong, the threat from Nazi Germany and Japanese militarism was becoming evident to President Roosevelt and other high-ranking officials. The tide of public opinion now began to turn against the isolationists. In 140 the US navy transferred fifty naval destroyers to the British navy, and in March 140, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which enabled the British to purchase American guns, tanks and warships.


When Japan invaded Indo-China in July 141, the American government placed an embargo on oil supplies to Japan. Previously in 18/, America had placed moral embargoes on Japan in protest against Japanese treatment of Chinese civilians. These embargoes included annexation of aircraft materials and petrol for Japan but in 1 America terminated the commercial treaty with Japan, thus effectively concluding the supplies of material to Japan via American ships.


In desperate need of a new source of oil, Japan planned to invade the British and Dutch colonies of the Dutch East Indies. Highly aware that this move would provoke a war with the American Pacific naval fleet, Japan attempted to cripple the American Pacific fleet in Pearl Harbour. On 7 December, 141, Pearl Harbour in Hawaii was bombed by the Japanese air force. Fortunately the American Pacific naval fleet was not crippled by this action but the unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbour ultimately brought America into open conflict with Japan. On 8 December, 141, America, Britain, Australia, seven other British Commonwealth nations and France declared war on Japan.


The collapse of Japanese militarism in 145


The Japanese invasions of Manchuria, China and the ultimate involvement of Japan in World War Two were not completely due to expansionist ideals, economic hardship and feelings of racial superiority. Throughout the 10s, Japans social, political and economic structure was revolutionised drastically via the introduction of the code ofmilitarism.


Militarism in Japan was manifested in all aspects of life; strict nationalistic ideals were enforced, and Japan was seen as the master race. Attitudes taught in schools became more militaristic, with harsh, strict order enforced and Japanese children learning contempt for China and the Chinese. Young men were also encouraged if not forced to join the armed forces and fight for their nation. Immense amounts of money were dedicated to defence spending and the military buildup of artillery, naval ships and the airforce.


The Ideals of militarism in Japan originally stemmed from the Japanese Samurai, a warrior like hero from Japanese myth and legend - the samurai was said to be a noble man who fought for his country and was prepared to die for it.


The ideals of the Japanese Samurai and militarism would endure in the minds of the Japanese citizens and soldiers for nearly 15 years. The ideals of militarism were so strong that citizens and soldiers were willing to fight until the last man. It was this attitude by the Japanese that ultimately resulted in the deployment by the allies of the atomic bomb against Japan. The war with Japan came to an end on 15 August, 145 and with that, the ultimate collapse of Japanese militarism. The surrender of Japan was effected in two instalments, the first instalment being the official broadcast of the Japanese surrender on Japanese radio by Emperor Hirihito at noon on 15 August. The final instalment of the surrender occurred on September 145 with the signing of the Potsdam declaration.


A significant factor contributing to the end of Japanese militarism was the atomic bomb. Two atomic bombs were dropped, one on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August, 145, the other on Nagasaki on August, 145. These two bombs caused widespread devastation and death throughout the two cities and severely affected Japanese morale. The first step towards an end to Japanese militarism had taken place. Although Japan had resisted unconditional surrender twice, Emperor Hirohito realised the utter futility of further Japanese involvement in the war and agreed to submit to an unconditional surrender instigated by the allies. Despite disagreement by several factions in the government with the surrender, it nonetheless transpired on 15 August, 145.


Although not all forms of Japanese Militarism ended with the capitulation of Japanese forces, the final significant factor in the end to Japanese militarism was the allied occupation of Japan between 145 and 150 and this would ultimately terminate all other forms of Japanese Militarism.





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women in ww2

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Military nurses were very much involved in the turmoil at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 141, working under tremendous pressure during the aftermath of the mornings raids. The Japanese attack left ,5 servicemen and 68 civilians dead. Eighty-two Army nurses were serving at three Army Medical Facilities in Hawaii that infamous December morning. Hundreds of casualties suffering from burns and shock were treated by Army and Navy nurses working side-by-side with civilian nurses and doctors. Nurses at Schofield Hospital and Hickam Field faced similar overwhelming numbers of wounded personnel. The Chief Nurse at Hickam Field, 1st Lt. Annie G. Fox, was the first of many Army nurses to receive a Purple Heart and the Bronze Star.


Four days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and twenty three years after the idea of women in the military was born, the Bureau of the Budget stopped objecting, planners began to plan and cooperation suddenly became the watchword. The bill was amended, reintroduced, stuck in committees, and stalled. The search was on for a director, a training center and the appropriate equipment. The military men in charge of logistics searched for ideas for no regulations existed. Finally on May 14th 14 the bill to Establish a Womens Army Auxiliary Corps became law and Oveta Culp Hobby, wife of the former governor of Texas, was named director.


Women continued to serve overseas through 145 and at one point there were over 000 WACs serving in North Africa alone. From there women were sent to Italy to serve with the 5th Army and these women moved all over Italy during the Italian campaign handling the communications; they earned commendations, bronze stars and the respect of their fellow soldiers as they sloughed through mud, lived in tents, dived into foxholes and dugouts during the Anzio air raids. During the battle on Anzio, six Army Nurses were killed by the German bombing and strafing of the tented hospital area. Four Army Nurses among the survivors were awarded Silver Stars for extraordinary courage under fire. In all, more than 00 Army Nurses lost their lives during World War II.


A Japanese suicide plane bombed the hospital ship USS Comfort off Leyte Island. In the attack 6 nurses, 5 medical officers, 8 enlisted men, and 7 patients were killed, and 4 nurses were wounded


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Often ignored by history is the story of the women prisoners of war taken captive during World War Two. Sixty seven Army nurses and sixteen Navy nurses spent three years as prisoners of the Japanese. Many were captured when Corregidor fell in 14 and were subsequently transported to the Santo Tomas Internment camp in Manila, in the Philippines. Santo Tomas was not liberated until February of 145. Five Navy nurses were captured on Guam and interned in a military prison in Japan.


Here is a rare WWII poster featuring the Nurses on Corregidor in a Japanese POW camp. One seriously doubts that they would be in whites with red and blue capes while prisoners but the point was being made to appeal to defense workers.


Two days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, 5 Navy nurses on Guam were taken prisoner by the Japanese. Lieutenants (jg) Leona Jackson, Lorraine Christiansen, Virginia Fogerty and Doris Yetter, under the command of Chief Nurse Marion Olds. Later in 14 their captors transported them to Japan. They were held for three months in Zentsuji Prison on Shikoku Island and were then moved to Eastern Lodge in Kobe. They were repatriated in August of 14. Nurses received 1,61 medals, citations, and commendations during the war, reflecting the courage and dedication of all who served. Sixteen medals were awarded posthumously to nurses who died as a result of enemy fire. Thirteen flight nurses died in aircraft crashes while on duty.


Sixteen women received the Purple Heart , awarded to soldiers injured due to enemy action. The Bronze Star was awarded to 565 women for meritorious service overseas. Over 700 WACs received medals and citations at the end of the war.


Countless women served in all branches of the service stateside and relieved or replaced men for combat duty overseas. Women performed admirably in every conceivable job imaginable including the dedicated WASPS who flew military aircraft to destination bases, suffered casualties, and yet were denied full miltary status.


However, with demobilization thoughts of women as an integral part of the miltary were not on the minds of the powers that be... even though four hundred thousand women gave a part of their life to their country... suffering not only the hardships of war but the cutting edge of public opinion.


Women spies


Women pilots


History tells us that the first licensed woman pilot in the United States was Harriet Quimby in 111. History forgets to tell us that Katherine Wright, sister of the Wright brothers, had as much to do with the first flight at Kittyhawk as did her brothers. Women flew airplanes before they could vote - but not in the U.S. military!


During WWI Princess Eugenie Shakhovskaya and Princess Sophie Alexandrovna Dolgorunaya were among the first women to become military pilots in Europe and though American women pilots volunteered, none were taken seriously. We all know the story of the gallant WASP pilots - women who flew every airplane made during WWII - including an experimental jet at 50 mph at 5,000 feet, (flown by Ann Baumgartner in 144) - yet were not considered military pilots until decades later.





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uncle toms cabin

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Uncle Toms Cabin depicted the time period of slavery very


well. The protagonist of the story was Uncle Tom, he is the pious


and good man of the story. He never loses his faith in people,


even if put down by them. From what I’ve read Uncle Tom’s Cabin


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was made to symbolize religious and steady faith. Mr. and Mrs.


Shelby represent the few slave owners that cared about there


slave and there well being.


When Eliza ran away for the Shelby’s to save her son from


being sold and in depspreration ran into the freezing cold river


to get away from Tom Loker was when you saw her love for her


son, Harry. The icy river kind of symbolized the line between


slavery and freedom. It was kind of ironic how Mrs. Bird and Mrs.


Shelby acted because you would of thought at that time that the


women listen to there husbands every word but these two women


spoke as openly as any other man.


It looked encouraging the Uncle Tom would be ok when he met


Eva and her father, Augustine St. Clare, because they were


similar to the Shelby’s. He was being treated good and he


had his Bible also he was in contact with his wife by letters.


St.Clare had promise his daughter to let Uncle Tom go but it went


down hill when Eva died and soon after he died too so there was no


and Eliza ended up with her husband heading for freedom. At this point you should recognize that Eliza is going a good path and


Uncle Tom was going more in oppression. When Tom was sold To


Simon Legree, it was the first time he ever saw slaves being


cruel to other slaves. Legree made his slave beat others


An American novelist, humanitarian, and philanthropist,


Harriet Elisabeth Beecher, mostly known as Harriet Beecher Stowe


was best known for her anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin.


Born June 14, 1811, the seventh child of a famous protestant


preacher . She first worked as a teacher with her older sister


Catharine and supported herself by writing local and religious


periodicals . Stowe’s first publication was a geography for


children . That did limit her she also wrote poems , children


books and adult books. Her first and most famous was Uncle Tom’s


Cabin. It began as 40 serial installments in, the National Era.


The story was to some extent based on true events and life of


Josiah Henson. The book ended up selling 00,00 its first year.


Stowe visited Europe in 185 and received numerous honors. The


book has also been translated into 7 languages.


“Harriet set about to write a polemical novel illustrating


the moral responsibility of the entire nation for the cruel


system.” More simply she wanted show people how slaves where


being treated and how it needed to change. Also to exemplifies


how unjust and inhumane the slaves were being treated and open up


the eyes of ingore people that don’t care about others. Stowe


goes about her objective by using her experience with the anti-slavery movement , familiarity with slavery, and personal


experiences, and knowledge of the underground railroad . It


gave her the idea to make up characters such as Uncle Tom, Eliza,


Mr. Shelby, and Eva. She showed the relationship between the


characters and like slaves relationship between the slaves and


there masters. The best example of a loving and happy


relationship is between Eliza and Uncle Tom with the Shelby’s.


That show how humane some of the slave owners were. And Stowe


showed the cruelty and bruelity of the south by showing the


relationship between Uncle Tom and Simon Legree.


She was successful in making a point about the cruelty of


slavery. What made it successful was how she showed the deep


emotion in the story. Some parts were so over whelming that you


felt that you were actually there. One part that you felt that


was when little Eva died. She was so loving and cared about


others that her death devastated so many. Also she went about her


point by writing about the hardships different slaves went


through. So it touched peoples heart and made you think , would


you want your family be treated like that.


This story could of beeen better if it showed more situation


of what happened in the south at that time. If it was possiably


pictures would of been great because you get to see the people


and what feeling were going on on there faces. Like they say, “ A


picture is worth a thousand word.” and in this case it would


because you would be able to into the slaves torment eye and try


to feel the pain.


No, I don’t think there was a bias in Uncle Tom’s Cabin


because she didn’t focus only of the bad aspects of the time but


of the good ones too. You got to see Eliza and family get free in


Canada and be happy, while you saw Uncle Tom beaten to death. She


also didn’t just show how the slaves were feeling but at the same


time show how the slave owners feeled. Stowe gave a


good overview of the time.


I think Uncle Tom’s cabin was well written and served its


prepose well. It showed the cruelity and hard ship of the time it


made people think twice about what they were doing. From


reading it I can see how it made such a positive impact on


people. This story proably paved the way for people such as


Martin Luther King Jr. , Malcom X , and the future equility


between black and white people. So much came out of this tiny


lady.


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The actions of Macbeth

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The actions of the character Macbeth


The actions of the character Macbeth must be evaluated by his personal motivations and the external causes that may have led to them. It is established from the very beginning that Macbeth is ambitious. There can be no doubt about this. A certain level of courage accompanies his ambition as well. As a noble he is an active one, fighting against the rebel hordes and Norwegians in defense of his king, no doubt for the purpose of gaining notoriety and other rewards. This is further illustrated by his gracious acceptance of credit for his deeds. He is a political figure in the highest sense, and show ambition in this way. However, there is no sign of him altering his course of loyal nobleman until outside influences begin to intercede. The people with greatest impact on Macbeth are the witches, his wife and Lady, and King Duncan of Scotland. The witches introduce the idea, King Duncan gives personal motive, and Lady Macbeth helps along the way. The least influential party in all of this is King Duncan. The conflict between these two is purely circumstantial, but clear enough. Macbeth is, as stated, an ambitious man. The King represents the highest position of power that Macbeth can hope to achieve. The King is also a father figure, patronizing to his subjects and expectant of total servitude. When King Duncan thanks Macbeth for his heroic service in battle, Macbeth replies that Your highness part / Is to receive our duties; and our duties / Are to your throne and state children and servants (1.4.-5). Macbeths metaphor expresses a common idea of the time A King cares for his people as a father cares for his children; and the people are supposed to act like obedient children.


In this way, Duncan’s very position is likely to grate against Macbeth. His actions do nothing to endear the King to Macbeth either. While rather obnoxious and rude to Macbeth, as well as snubbing him for a shot at the kingship, His Majesty is mostly unwitting to anything that is going on. Duncan’s main influence is directly after Macbeth is honored for bravery and courage in battle, fighting for Duncan against a rebel lord. Macbeth is busily basking in his own glory and soaking up credit when Duncan basically steals his spotlight from right over his head, proclaiming Malcolm, Duncan’s son, as the heir-apparent. My plenteous joys, wanton in fullness, seek to hide themselves in drops of sorrow. (In reference to the nobility of Macbeth. He switches gears rather quickly.) Sons, kinsmen, thanes, and you whose places are the nearest, know we will establish our state upon our eldest, Malcolm, whom we name hereafter the Prince of Cumberland; (Act 1, Scene 4, Lines -45) This action also belittles Macbeth’s achievement, since the procession of the throne is not necessarily dictated by bloodlines. Duncan is basically announcing that Macbeth, while noble, is inferior to his wonderful son Malcolm, and deserves a nice spot in the sun even though his actions were less. This is where Duncan provokes Macbeth to hate him and also points out what Macbeth must do to become King. After this provocation, Duncan proceeds to visit Macbeth’s home; blissfully unaware that anything might be amiss. This castle hath a pleasant seat. The air nimbly and sweetly recommends itself unto our gentle senses. (Act 1, Scene 6, Lines 1-) So, Duncan’s fate is sealed, and Macbeth slays him in order to become King. Let it never be said that Duncan did not hasten his own demise. The other side of Duncan’s murder is due to the contribution of Lady Macbeth, who begins plotting as soon as she finds out Duncan is coming to stay. Macbeth truly found his soul mate in this sense; she certainly does think along the same vein as he. However, the Lady doesn’t seem to be at all divided on the issue. When Macbeth first hears the prophecies, and when the first / of it comes true, he does think of killing the king, but also, towards the end of Act 1, Scene , he thinks that perhaps he doesnt need to do anything to become the king If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me without my stir. On the other hand, Lady Macbeth, on receiving the letter telling her about the witches prophecies, she immediately thinks that she and Macbeth will have to kill king Duncan. She also decides that Macbeth is too nice to kill the king, sayin that he is too ful o the milk of human kindness and when she hears the Duncan will visit their castle that night, she immediately appeals to the evil spirits, to (ironically) give her the strength to kill the king.


She completely ignores the first influence of Duncan (assuming that she knows it at all). Her influence is completely self motivated and originated in her own mind. She takes advantage of Macbeth’s original motivation, his ambition, and uses that to decide what he must do. She also appears to be made of sterner stuff than her husband, or at least is more committed to the deed. It should be noted that she doesn’t actually have to kill Duncan; so most of the strength she has to build up goes into convincing Macbeth that it is a good idea. Her influence on Macbeth in this matter is obviously great. He does not decide to murder Duncan; Lady Macbeth does it for him. He’s not too fond of the idea, but Lady Macbeth tells him he must commit murder to fulfill his destiny. Every time he reconsiders, she gives him a pep talk. She even instructs him during the murder, drugs Duncan’s guards, and advises him on every detail of his behavior once the deed has been done. She is the foundation of all of Macbeth’s actions in this matter, and it would not be a far cry to assume that she has always had an extreme influence on him. In short, Lady Macbeth uses Duncan’s presence and the opportunity to take his life to influence Macbeth into fulfilling the witches’ prophecy and sealing his destiny. This brings us to the witches themselves. The witches are the physical manifestation of evil itself, and they bring temptation, malice and disaster with their visitations upon hapless mortals. This best illustrated by the witches’ quote Fair is foul and foul is fair, (Act 1, Scene 1, Line 11). This illustrates the idea that every aspect of the witches is a perversion of natural moral character. It may be said that the prophecy set forth by the witches is the single cause for the entire story of Macbeth. Without the witches, Macbeth may never have thought of taking Duncan’s life at all. In Act 1, Scene , the witches tell Macbeth that he is thane of Glamis, thane of Cawdor and that he shalt be king hereafter. Immediately after hearing the witches prophesize that he will be king, Macbeth thinks that he must kill the current king to become king himself. Without the prophecy, even Lady Macbeth probably would not have thought of doing such a thing. It is not that the desire for Macbeth to become king would not have existed if the witches had not talked to Macbeth. The desire existed in both Macbeth and his wife naturally in their position as nobles. The significance of the prophecy is that it brought this desire to the foreground, and made it reality. The witches told Macbeth that he would be king. He took this statement for granted. For Macbeth, it suddenly changed from whether or not he would be king to how he would get to be king. And, of course, Lady Macbeth’s main reasoning in praise of the murder of the King is the fulfillment of prophecy and Macbeth’s own destiny. Without the witches to suggest the major course of action, would Macbeth ever have been so bold as to pursue his ambition? It is doubtful that he would have, with no assurance, and Macbeth would have simply been another noble. The witches’ prophecy is self-fulfilling, and could not come about had it not been made. On another point, the witches continue to influence Macbeth much later on in the play than we see evidence of either Duncan or Lady Macbeth. The witches know that Macbeth will be paranoid and kill those about him. Hecate herself says And you all know, security is mortals’ chiefest enemy. (Act , Scene 6, Lines -). And the witches come to Macbeth again, speaking of his future and his downfall. Three apparitions appear before him. The first tells him to beware Macduff, who eventually leads the forces that defeat Macbeth. The second tells him Laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth. (Act 4, Scene 1, Lines 0-1). The third apparition tells him Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him. Each of these prophecies is also fulfilled in the course of the book, but they are incredibly misleading. This is done purposefully by the witches for the sake of confusion and overconfidence on Macbeth’s part, since they, as a general rule, conspire to injure mere mortals. Especially the last two prophecies instill a sense of invincibility in Macbeth, and encourage him to continue on his course just as his resolve begins to weaken. This false sense of fate and power on his part is a major factor in his downfall. So, the witches influence Macbeth by causing his ascension, his madness, and his demise. In the case of Macbeth, first and last ruler of that name, his natural state is released and augmented by the influence of others. His King provided a reason for contempt and the opportunity to assume the throne, his wife encouraged him to step forward and fulfill his destiny, and the witches make both Macbeth and his mate believe that it is possible and inevitable. When one’s self and one’s surroundings agree with one another, a single path is opened as a possibility to the mind. Macbeth was bound to his actions as a lion is bound to kill or a bird is bound to fly. The message itself is clear enough; that no man is an island. Every person relies on the influences of those around him or her in order to form conceptions and decisions. Humans are truly social creatures, and Macbeth is a wonderful example of this communal nature of man.


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Please note that this sample paper on The actions of Macbeth is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The actions of Macbeth, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on The actions of Macbeth will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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